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ADMIRALTY ISLANDS - (incl New Guinea) - MELANESIA . Admiralties, Usiai. Like other Melanesians, these root-pig gardeners were occasional cannibals, perhaps because of the relative scarcity of available protein in their diet: FTX-783

AFGHANISTAN -- Badarkchan Tadjiks - drum rhythm - CANTOMETRICS-915 B1/12

AFRICA - see also ALGERIA - LIBYA - MOROCCO - TUNISIA - EGYPT -- Sylvia MOORE World Folksong: FTX-137 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - String Instruments: FTX-801 - Reeds: FTX-802 - Drums: FTX-803 - Flutes: FTX-804 - Xylophones: FTX-805 - Guitars 1: FTX-806 - Animal Stories: FTX-809 - Xylophone orchestras (Ngodo) 1: FTX-810 - Xylo Orch 2: FTX-811 - Gumboot Dancers: FTX-812 - Protest Songs: FTX-813 - Work: FTX-814 - Metal Reeds: FTX-815 - Kenya: Children: 821 - Luo Cattle-herders (The sandbagger likens the chief to a rock in the lake which stops the fish from passing (and thus feeds the people). Male solo with mixed group, stamping with legbells/ Highland Bantu, neighbours of the Kikuyu, perform a dance song about a cattle raid. Male solo, with female group and male group/ Mozambique Chopi composers create long compositions for massed xylophones and dancers. This one contains 15 movements: - Malagasi: Ambilube tribesmen harmonizing 'praise' songs such as this one addressed to the king. / Senegal: Wolof cattle-herding and hoe agriculture, West Sudanese praise-song type: FTX-781 - The Dogon say 'To mourn the dead is to sow the grain" and here the cries of mourners fall on the ears irregularly, like seeds from the hand of the sower/ Tanzania: Gogo. The lead instrument is a 20-note mbira, with a mechanically boosted bass/ Tanzania: Hehe. Clapping in rhythmic unison is most common in children's groups. Female group/ Zimbabwe: Boys in a gym class clash their wooden dumb-bells together to the rhythm set by their drummer-song-leader/ Malawi, Sakalava. Hocketing on seven whistles: FTX-789 #19)/ Middle Congo, Kikuyu. A typical example of juxtaposing two different kinds of voices (one sweet, one harsh) and two different meters / Malawi, Nsenga. Three women pound grain with pestles and mortars and sing in a relaxed, breathy vocal style/ E. Africa, Central Sudan, Mayogo. A dance song for two great circle-files, men inside, women around them, with music by three slit drums, four deep drums, one double bell and male leader with mixed chorus/ Mbuti Pygmies singing a party song in their interlocked, canonic style. Male group/ Bebenzele Pygmies with a song that was once magic for the hunt and has now become an entertainment piece. Mixed group: FTX-782 - S. Sudan. The Pari are semi-nomadic, Nilotic. Male singer with mixed chorus and long horn/ Upper Volta. These two Bambara farmers journey hundreds of miles every year to play their xylophones at the palace of their king; the bells on their wrists jingle/ The Luo have a rich diet of food and music, drawing upon both Bantu and Nilotic traditions. Male solo and male group/ Banda. After the first rain of the season, children go single-file around the village clapping and singing this song for good fortune/ Ivory Coast, Baule. A festival song with mixed chorus and drums, from a tribe whose music strongly resembles that of the West Indies: FTX-783 - C.Africa. Pygmy woman singing at her tasks to maintain contact between people at a distance/ C. Africa. Ekonda. An extended , poly-parted composition about how the Ekonda tribe resembles the big-rooted, stately bokunga tree. Male groups/ C Africa, Lake Albert, Mayogo (Gogo). Polyphonic, polyrhythmic overlap between leader, male and female groups, three mbiras and a basket rattle/ E. Africa, Hehe. A man of this grain and cattle-raising folk sings to amuse himself as he strums his zither/ The Luo, compose praise songs to particular cows or bulls. Male solo with eight-string lyre and legbells/ C. Africa. The Congo Ekonda with one part of a remarkable choral suite performed with parallel chords and overlap. Female chorus/ C.Africa Topoke. Female chorus overlapping/ A Topoke man, from a clan-organized, extended-family society, sings of his dangerous work - harvesting palm fruit high up in the trees. Male solo/ E. Africa, Watutsi. From the tall, imperial Nilotic cattle herders comes this embellished epic about warlike exploits of by-gone days. Male solo/ Mozambique Chopi man laments the theft of his palm trees, accompanying himself polyrhythmically by shaking a little sprig of dry seed pods/ C. Africa. A Babinga Pygmy woman leads a group in a contrapuntal song that have no words, but which all present know as a magic song for elephant hunting/ W. Africa, Cameroons. Bafut young men and women make their own tight, swinging rhythm for a moonlight dance. Female leader with male group/ C. Africa. A Babenzele Pygmy woman singing a magical chant/ Kenya. An African band sings a little strophe with string accompaniment: FTX-784 - West Africa. A Bafut lad sings with the breath-softened resonance black singers often employ/ E. Africa, Watutsi. Another bard (this one from a black absolute monarchy) declaims a hunting song. Male solo/ West Africa. The Malinke are millet farmers, who once built an empire and whose 'praise songs,' like this one, may be one origin-point of the blues. Male solo with harp/ S. Africa. A Bushman giraffe-magic song that came to an old medicine woman in a dream. She sings it with two of her cronies/ W. Africa, Dahomey. A choir of women sing of the greatness and warlike prowess of one of the kings of Abomey. The accompaniment is a calabash hung with strings of cowries and snake vertebrae/ C. Africa, Babenzele Pygmy. A well-blended, interlocked, poly-parted chorus from a band-organised, gathering culture, singing with wide voices, large intervals and much repetition: FTX-785 - C. Africa, Middle Congo, Babanzele Pygmies. A female yodeling work song from this forest, where women are the chief producers and are socially dominant/ S. Africa. The Shona are extraordinary musicians, as this performance by a group of blind singers testifies. The bugle note is produced by breathing in past the palm leaf string of the musical bow/ E. Africa. The Pari, one of the many Nilotic herding tribes of Eastern Sudan, , present a praise song to the chief. 20-30 women with a female leader/ N. Africa. Saharan Tuareg man accompanied on a one-string fiddle sings, "All day I have been in pain; I am like a child who hates even his mother's breast; all I desire is the tall girl whose beauty surpasses the stars in the Southern Cross"/ S. Africa, Ndau. A composer-bard sings elegant syncopation against the rippling polyrhythms he thumbs on his mbira/ C. Africa. Bapende children sing in an overlapped, parallel-chord, unified, liquid-voiced style/ The Sudan. The Shilluk - a semi-nomadic people of North-east Africa, who have a different cultural, linguistic tradition from the black Bantu Africans. Here a chief tells how he avoided war over a water-hole and led his people to a peaceful place. Male solo/ C. Africa, Luba. One of the great confederations of the Central Congo, offers this topical song, self-accompanied. Male solo with mbira/ C. Africa. Luo, of Nilotic origin in the hills west of Lake Victoria, sing a gentle ironic love song to an over-loving wife: "she loves me so much that she forgets her duties and I have to remind her to go back to work". Male solo with string bowl lute/ C. Africa. The Hehe, live in dispersed homesteads, in the arid Rift country. This hoeing song which says 'hunger makes me weak' reflects the hardship in their lives. Male leader with male group: FTX-786 - W. Africa, Bulu (Fang). A women's dance song performed by a leader with mellow-voiced chorus and clapped accompaniment/ E. Africa, Nilotic Kipsigi. Cushites of partly Caucasian descent, who practice intensive terraced agriculture in the mountains of N.E. Kenya, sing this chorus in overlapped counterpoint to a six-string lyre accompaniment/ N.W. Africa. Mauretanian griots (bards) performing a hanoun, praising the emir, accompanied by a lute and by drumming on the soundbox of a harp. Male and female soloists/ S.E. Africa. The Chagga exhibit the magnificence of African mass-singing with its overlapping parts, its fluid harmonies and its surging power. Male leader with mixed group/ W. Africa, Upper Volta, Gwin. The chief has died and a female mourner is improvising a funeral lament with the support of her neighbors, accompanied by the insects of the night: FTX-787 - Kenya Highland Bantu. The Chagga are cattle herders and terrace farmers, organised into patrilineal clans (with bride price) and into age-set retinues serving powerful chiefs. Female leader and female group perform a topical dance song/ Zimbabwe. The Shona, organized in patrilineages with bride service, built a powerful cattle-herding kingdom like that of the Zulu. Their performance epitomises the African playful use of vocal timbre. Male solo, female solo with mbira/ Nilote Luo. A praise song by farmers and cattle-herders with patrilineal clans and bride price. Male solo with thum (eight-string lyre) and leg-bells/ S. Ethiopia, Sidamo. are Western Cushites (the ancient Caucasoids of East Africa) whose country is ruled by a divine king. has highways for rapid transportation and is surrounded by a palisade. Here a mixed chorus sings in the yodeling, hocketing style found in so many isolated cultural pockets of the world, singing the way they play their panpipes (orchestras of single-noted horns)/ E. Africa, Nilotes. Dinka, a semi-nomadic cattle people,half a million strong, where the youthful male age-grade is assigned to stay with the herds. Such complex litanies are most frequent in Black Africa. Female singer/ E. Africa, Sudanic Mayogo. A topical song, voiced with wonderfully resonant nasality by a chief and his attendants. Basket rattle accompaniment/ South Africa, Ndau. Descending cadences like these are more frequent in black African tradition than elsewhere. Male accompanying himself on mbira/ C. Sudan, Mombutu. Male solo with mixed chorus and three thumb pianos/ Zambia, Nsenge. A song for a boy's initiation. Masked dancer, chorus of men with leg-bells and five drums/ C. Africa. Mbuti Pygmies, gatherers of the rainforest, sing in their hocketing, yodeling, interlocked style in a joyful celebration of a girl's first menarche/ E. Africa, Somaliland. Desert camel herders have many songs for managing their prized, but temperamental animals. This one is to make them drink. Male chorus/ Kenya Masai. These warriors, who live on the mixed blood and milk of their cattle, sing an epic narrative. Male leader with mixed chorus. Drone polyphony/ C. Congo, Mbuti Pygmies. Three women sing after a fishing trip: FTX-788 - Senegal. Casamence Griot (bard and topical composer), accompanying himself on the kora (21-string harp-lute). Male solo with harp-lute/ Shona. In a foiktale a deer sings this song. Mixed group/ Ethiopia, Gomo-Gupe Province. Fifty men of the Cushitic-speaking Dorze tribe casually sing in four-part polyphony in the yodeling, interlocked style of the African gatherers/ Ivory Coast, Bedouni Region. The Baule are famed for their art and music. To my mind, their style is one of those most often heard in West Indian, traditional folk music. This is music for initiation, with overlapping choruses, four drums, rattles and a sistra: FTX-789 - Hugh Tracey Collection: COLUMBIA SL-213 East Africa/ CASS 0048 - Jean Jenkins Intro to African Music Radio 3 1974: CASS-0074 - Rendille songs (N Kenya) rec by Anders Grum 1981 (see letter file) CASS-0073 / CASS-0048- Sudan: Abdel Aziz El MUBARAK (voc & lute) with Azhari Abdel GADIR (p-acc) rec 1980: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Central African Republic: OCORA OCR 43/ CASS 0118 (box) - Kenya: Rendille Nomads rec by Anders Grum 1981 (see letter file): CASS-0073 - WOMAD Intro to Africa 1985: CASS-0076 Dembo KONTI: 8/11/87: CASS-90-0550 - ELLIPSIS ARTS 3XCD 3301-3302 & 3303 1994"Never Stand Still" - Colin Turnbull's rec of pygmies of Ituri Forest ELLIPSIS ARTS #4020 1995 CD & Book "Echoes of the Forest" - Louis Sarno's rec of Babenzele pygmies ELLIPSIS ARTS 3490 1995 (CD inside book)"Bayaka" - Fuday Musa SUSO: ELLIPSIS ARTS CD3510 1996 "Jali Kunda" (Griots of West Africa) rec in Mali, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau & Gambia AFRICA rec in Britain -- "Aime Bebe": Nsimba FOGUIS & TAXI PATA PATA Music of Zaire & Zimbabwe NYIRANGONGO MUSIC CTAX-1 CASS#1222

ALBANIA -Musical Instruments of the World: FTX-700 - Gegs. A woman of this fiercely independent, but stratified, mountain-shepherd society sings a nina-nana, or lullaby: FTX-785 - An epic ballad set to a one-phrase melody from one of the European strongholds of the zadruga (the extended family settlement). Male group in unison: FTX-787 - Epic ballad male group in unison: 90916 A2/5 - Yugoslavia rec by PK: COLUMBIA SL 217 1951/ ROUNDER 1745 (Double CD) 2001 - TINA ROZANC Ensemble: TOPIC TOP 112 (EP) & TOPIC 12-T-154 - Jim Lloyd's tribute to A L Lloyd: 9/11/82 CASS 15-0762









ARAGON & VALENCIA - Recordings - see SPAIN

ARGENTINA -- Gran Chaco. The Matacos once were warlike mounted hunters of the pampas, raiding white settlements; in many ways, as in their music, they resemble the North American Plains Indians. Male Solo: FTX-786 - Lola Keipja, the last of the Ona - a Patagonian hunting tribe exterminated by Europeans - performs a spirit possession song: 788 - 90-906 B3/10 - TOPIC TOP-46 (45 EP) LEDA & MARIA Songs & dances - cass dub of Kitty Turner's 78 rpm disks of South America CASS-0091 BARCLAY 820-054 LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia - Raul BARBOZA (button acc with bandoneon) rec Corrientes followed by 2 Tangos played on the bandoneon: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

ARMENIA -- Two duduks (double reeds) in the free rhythm, microtonal, ornamental, glissando style customary in Old High Culture: FTX-787 - Armenia & Achugh: - OCORA OCR 50 rec Robert Ataian (Radio)/ CASS-0113 (box) - OCORA OCR-59/ CASS-0105 - 59 Poem chant: Achugla (Radio)/ CASS-0105 (box)- 66 Chants Liturgiques - 67 Instrumental Music/ CASS-0151 (box)



AUSTRALIA - see also NEW GUINEA - PAPUA - ABC PRS 1653 SYDNEY Symph Orch: Music of Percy Grainger - RRCS-131 MELBOURNE Symph Orch: As previous - CASS- 0042-3 & 0045 (Columbia SL-208: Australia & New Guinea) - LARRIKIN LRD-001 (S) 1975 Mining "Man of the Earth"/ CASS-0158 - LARRIKIN LRD-007 Bush Traditions rec Warren Fahey/ CASS 0154 - LARRIKIN LRD-028 nd CASS#1212 Warren FAHEY & THE LARRIKINS - LARRIKIN 0LRD-34 Piano Rolls: Percy GRAINGER - LARRIKIN LRD- 9012 (2 LPs) "While the Billy boils" Panorama of Australian Folklore/ CASS-0479 - PIGS WHISKER PWM-004 (c) Robin WILLIAMSON Story of "Wee Jack & Lord Mayor" ends at Sydney Opera House - rec Asia-Pacific Union Festival of Radio Folkmusic Radio 12/10/79: CASS-15-0745 - Colin Irwin's radio prog 1988 "Acoustic Roots": CASS-0351 - Greg CHAMPION Cricket Song/ Eric BOGLE & Band "Harry's Wife": Radio 2, 24/8/88: CASS-15-0732

AUSTRALIA -- Aborigines -- N. Arnhemland aborigines ritual summoning the souls of departed heroes. Male solo with sticks/ Marajin. Four old men simultaneously sing variations on a devotional song, with stick accompaniment: FTX-781/ Arnhemland, Jiwadja. A song describing a big salt-water fish swimming alone. Male group with horn and sticks/ Arnhemland. A sacred chant of the Marajin aborigines. Mixed group: FTX-782 Northern Territory, Australia. A Yirrkala tribesman sings an embellished sacred song for healing the wounded. Male solo with sticks: FTX-783 - Arnhemland aborigine singing a totemic clan song about the damala (white sea hawk), swooping down from the clouds and catching fish. Male solo/ N.E. Australia, near Cape York, Yarrabah. The old men maintained their dominance in Australian aboriginal society, in part by elaborate song rituals for totemic, place-attached ancestors, by drastic genital mutilation in initiation and by early marriage to pre-adolescent girls. They sing with a very tense, noisy vocal delivery and in a unique cadential style. Male solo: FTX-784 - Arnhemland aborigines. The old men, who ritually controlled the clans, made the initiation into ritual expertise a long-drawn-out process, which gave rise to enormously elaborated musical and choreographic traditions/ Arnhemland aborigines. A repetitious male solo with stick accompaniment: FTX-785 - Aborigines. These nomadic gatherers have developed ceremonialism and, it is said, psychological control and pass on their elaborate, totemic ritual songs. Male with sticks: FTX-786 - Arnhemland. Sticks accompany the didjeridu. It plays in unison with the singers performing a terraced melody to an irregular meter, in unison with each other/ C. Arnhemland. Semi-professional stickman and songman perform dance music accompanied on the a large-bore, wooden trumpet requiring great strength and control. Three males: FTX-787 - Northern Territory Aborigines. The songman beats two sticks together and the dijeridoo-player breathes rumbling notes from his hollowed tree branch making music for the evening dance before the musicians at the campfire - the women a little way off in the shadows - and from time to time the leading dancer gives a climactic cry. Two male solos with male chorus, horns and sticks: FTX-789 - ALBATROS VPA-8279 rec Wolfgang Laade 1963-4 Cape York Peninsula/ CASS-0069 - COLUMBIA SL-208 (& cassette copy) World Library of Folk & Primitive Music rec by A P Elkin: Arnhem Land, Northern Territory & Eastern New Guinea - CASS-0068 from Roy Mallet of interview in NY - WOMAD 002 Didgeridoo solo & song - rec in UK -- ARGO ZFB-35 1971 TINKERS - ZFB-82 1973 Martin WYNDHAM-READ - RPL REC-95 1970 Redd SULLIVAN - LEADER 2019 1970 Martin Wyndham-Read & 2028 solo album - PHILIPS 638-2022 1967 Martin CARTHY "Streets of Forbes" - TOPIC 12-T-51 1960 A L LLOYD - 12-TS-203 1971 LLoyd, Martin Wyndham- Read & Trevor LUCAS - 12-TS-411 1980 Nic JONES "Farewell to the Gold" - 12-TS-437 1988 Eric BOGLE - Glen TOMASETTI (voc/gtr) rec by PK London 1962: "Denis O Reilly" "Jim Jones at Botany Bay" "Jack Lefroy"

AUSTRIA -- RPL 21668 Ch singing/ Zither & carillon Kufstein 1954 - Hans-Peter FALKNER (4-row diatonic accordion) with ATTWENGER incl yodelling & drum: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

AZERBAIJAN -- Female solo with lute. (Russia.#1,C3)/ Azerbaijani have inhabited the East Caucasus since ancient times. Male solo with strings/ The quintessence of the florid style of Middle Eastern fine-art song: FTX-785

BAHREIN -- OCORA OCR-42 Pearl fishers in Persian Gulf/ CASS-0119 (box)

BALEARIC ISLANDS -- IBIZA - MALLORCA - MENORCA - Balearics, Iviza. Formal glottal ornamentation, unique in West Europe is the hallmark of traditional song in this former Carthaginian outpost. Like their forebearers, Ivizians devote their lives to the sea. Female solo with drum: FTX-785 - recs by Alan Lomax incl Mallorca & Ibiza: COLUMBIA SL-216

BALI - see also GAMELAN - JAVA -- ARGO ZFB-73 Gamelan orch - SPA-212 World of Travel (sampler) - CANTOMETRICS 90-012 A2/1 "Kechak" (monkey chant) - B2/6 & B3/14 Gamelan orch - 90-015 B2/14 Funeral gamelan or Ankhung - COLUMBIA SL-210 Indonesia rec Jaap Kunst/ CASS 0046 - EMI HLP-1 History of Music B5 (a) Gamelan "Drunken woodpecker" (B) Excerpt of Balinese Theatre (c) from Gamboch - NONESUCH H-711 "Ketjak" (Ramayana Monkey Chant) - H 2015 Gamelan rec David Lewiston - OCORA OCR-60 Music & Theatre/ CASS-0153 (box) - OCR-72 Trance dances & music 1971/ CASS-0149 (box) - WOMAD 002 Sasono Mulyo Gamelan Orch - WARNER WEA KG "Ketjak" (Ramayana Monkey Chant) - Wayang Gamelan orhestra rec by Jaap Kunst, Ubud, Bali: from COLUMBIA World Library/: ROUNDER CD 1700 1997

BASQUE COUNTRY, THE - FRANCE: Ustaritz and SPAIN: Alava, Guipuzcoa & Vizcaya -- IFMC Festival: incl Basque rec 1953: FTX-610- Douglas Kennedy talks about first encounters with their Morris: FTX-481- FTX-493 (on FTX-491) - International Folk Music Council 1953 Festival in both Biarritz, France & Pamplona, Spain: FTX-606 - FTX-607 ("RTR-0452-6) - WESTMINSTER WL-5334 1953 IFMC World Festival Pamplona & Biarritz 1953 incl Basque,Valencia & Seville (also incl other countries taking part): FTX-610 - A crowd from the fishermen's guild, just off the boats, demonstrated the solilarity for which the Basques are famed, in this unrehearsed and spontaneous performance. (Lomax #21 B6)/ A Basque girl sings a dance tune to the tambourine and alboca (a form of double oboe). Female solo: FTX-782 - Spanish Basque. For my benefit the bersolari (verse-maker) began "In America they know nothing about our town". He then improvised a poem celebrating the beauties of the place: FTX-784 - Spain. A Basque bersolari (poet) improvising a new verse- an asymmetrical 8-phrase strophe in irregular meter: FTX-785 - The Basque culture and language and their democratic and complementary society antedate that of Spain. They have fought and are still fighting to maintain cultural autonomy. A love song from a corn-shucking. Female group: FTX-786 - . Inheritors of a big-family, complementary, cohesive way of life, Basques are polyphonic choralizers, as for example with this local male choir: FTX-788 - COLUMBIA SL-207 France #20-26 (mainly song - no txistu) & SL-216 Spain #33-35 (no txistu) - Group rec London 21/8/54: RPL 20500 - Solo girl dance tune with alboca (double oboe)/ - Improvised verses by bersolari/ Female love song/ Local male choir - Kepa JUNKERA (melodeon): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Musicians of the Town of Pamplona ELKAR-LP-248 (signed by the musicians on their visit to Gloucester)

BELGIUM -- Belgian TV/ Radio BELGIAN R/TV DL 111-427 "Ethnical Music" with Customs incl Binche, Children's Games, Ballads etc. -Walloon & Flemish songs & dances Vuylsteke coll 1980/ CASS 0140 (box)/ OCORA 558-594 - Blowzabella Band: PLANT LIFE 038 1982 Kolomtanz (Flemish) - Flemish bagpipes: CASS 0030 - "Bone March" from Brabant Area: on Radio 2 28/12/88: CASS 60-0547

BERMUDA - Group of men from Andros Island rec by Alan Lomax, Nassau, Bahamas Aug 1935: ROUNDER CD-11661-1822-2 1999 "Roll him along" (AAFS 507B)

BHUTAN -- rec by John Levy 1971 (RPL LP 34691-3)

BOLIVIA - see also CHILE - ECUADOR - PERU -- TUMI 002-8 cassettes - WOMAD-1 1982 Raindrops pattering - cassette of S America commercial 78rpm disks from Kitty Turner - CASS 0091 BARCLAY 820-054 LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia - "Carnival de los Andes -1" TUMI C-007 1986 CASS#1223 - K'JARKAS "Sol de Los Andes" TUMI C-008 CASS#1216 - RUMILLAJTA "Hoja de Coca" TUMI SRT-4KC-198 CASS#1217 - RUMILLAJTA "Pachamama"(Mother Earth) TUMI C-003 CASS#1218 - MALLKU DE LOS ANDES "On the Wings of the Condor" TUMI C-004 CASS-1219 - KJARKAS "Bolivia" TUMI C-005 CASS-1220 - LOS JAIRAS "Chacaltaya" The Music of the Andes" TUMI c-006 CASS-1221


BRAZIL -- The Iawa tribe perform a song of fishing magic. Mixed group: FTX-781 - Yoruba songs and rites, unremembered in Nigeria, survive in the cults of Bahia like this hymn to Shango, God of thunder/ Interior Amazonia. Campa. A social dance song by mixed group with drum/ Interior Amazonia. Coto (Orejon) Indians collectively wailing over a corpse. Mixed group/ Juruna. Only a few families remain of these Tupi-speaking fishermen-cultivaters of the Upper Xingu. Male group: FTX-782- Ucayali River. The Conibo are a small tribe renowned for pottery and textile design. This mixed group, led by male with drum accompani-ment, gives a typically diffuse performance/ - E. Brazil. Cayapo manioc planters and hunter-fishers Male group, stamping/ E. Brazil, Kraho/ S. America, Jivaro. A shaman, trying to determine whose magic is responsible for the death of a child, sings of his power: FTX-783 - N.E. Kraho. This dawn song begins slowly and heavily, but quickens until at sunrise a powerful sound fills the plaza of the clan-organized, complementary village: FTX-784 - Interior Amazonia. Jivaro. A woman's love song/ One constant theme of aboriginal life in game-poor Amazonia is the dependence of women on their hunter mates; here a woman laments her husband's departure/ Xingu River, Shukarramai. Fishing and gardening and clan organized villages/ Interior Amazonia, Amahuaca. The banana-festival dance of this tribe, who live in tiny homesteads scattered through the mountainous jungle. Male group/ Interior Amazonia, Conibo. The women of this fishing tribe wail over a corpse. Later, custom demands the body be sealed up in an old canoe and hidden in the jungle. Female group: FTX-786 - A Jivaro man sings that his wife has brewed chicha (alcohol) and invites his friends (Head-hunting allies) to drink. Note yodeling/ The Jivaro live in dispersed, single-family habitations and, since the men spend much of their time in pursuit of game and heads, the women are often alone, dreaming and longing for their lovers, as in this song. Male solo: FTX-787 - A Jivaro woman sings to the lover who must serve her father for a long period before he can marry her. Big intervals, melisma and glissando/ Caraja, a riverine fishing tribe. Here masked male dancers entice the young women to follow them down the sand spit, singing in the low register common in this region. Male solo/ The Kraho are complementary gardeners who dwell in big.segmented villages and stage daily rehearsals of ritual dance and song. Mixed chorus and rattle in parallel polyphony: FTX-788 - Jivaro. A woman sings about the loss of her lover. Female solo: FTX-789 - Tukuna (Upper Amazon) boys & girls - Trunai (Xingu river) 90-014 A3/6/B3/12 Shukarrami (Xingu) - Caraja masked male dancers 90-016 B2/2 - HUNGARIAN Nopraje Ethno Museum 1966 Matto Gross (flute) cassette - Bahia L-13 LIB OF CONGRESS - Black Music of S America NONESUCH H-72036 - Renato BORGHETTI (3-row acc) rec Rio Grande do Sul 1990: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - - Sergio CUEVAS (harp) rec by PK, London 30/3/63: RTR-0405-6/ ARION 30-T-131 - BRAZOS FILMS: "ROOTS OF TEX-MEX MUSIC "Chulas Fronteras" & "Del Mero Corazon" two films by Les Blank & Chris Strachwitz: BF-DVD (video) 104 2003

BRITTANY - see also under FRANCE -- WESTMINSTER WL 5334 1954 (unacc dance song)/ World Festival Biarritz & Pamplona 1951: FTX-610 - COLUMBIA SL 207 1952 France - ANCHE LIBRE (Dastum cassette) 1987 acc players transcr in book by Bernard LASBLEIZ) - CASS-0056 - A L Lloyd "The Celtic World - Sound of the Voice" Radio 8/210/68: CASS-0614 - FONTANA 6399-008 9101-500 1975 & 6325-304 1973 Alain STIVELL "from Celtic Roots" - MODELLO 1979 Kesty "Breton Dance" - MOUEZ-BREIZ 33523 Goodec sisters of Carhaix (unacc incl song-dance) - 45-111 Catherine GUERN/ Laeiz ROPARS of Poullaouen - 45-134 Jef PHILIPPE (bombarde) & Yannick ARESSE (biniou) - PHILIPS 6414-406 Alain STIVELL - Breton songs with fid: RTR-0468 - Alain STIVELL & GUARDIG Sisters RPL Radio 2 5/7/82: CASS-15-0754 - QUERTZ Breton Group at Sidmouth RPL Radio 2 10/8/88: CASS-90-0549 - Jacques BEAUCHAMP (3 row diatonic accordion): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

BULGARIA -- Rhodope chain dance involving a whole village (Raim & Koenig, B2/ Sofia Koledo (Christmas carol) by a trained city sextet, whose use of harmony may represent an urban innovation. Mixed group: FTX-781 - FTX-782 - S.E. Bulgaria, Thrace. The bridesmaid sings when the groom's party arrives to take the bride to church, in a zone where Near Eastern influence is strong. Female solo/ Thracian women can throw their voices for a mile across the plains; nowhere do women sing with more full-throated power than in this land, the legendary home of the Amazons: FTX-785 - As in much of old Europe, much work (and courtship) is done at evening working parties, where this riddling ballad was sung. Male solo/ A Bulgarian trained chorus with a koledarski- a pagan mid-winter song where the singer can offer praise or wish luck or health to the household/ Woman with gaida (one-drone bagpipe) and kaval (seven-hole flute) performing in the aksak (limping rhythm) common in the Middle East and Eastern Europe: FTX-786 - N. Bulgarian lament for Giorgi Dimitrov, the Bulgarian hero of the Reichstag fire scandal, played on the kaval (seven-holed shepherd's flute): FTX-787 - Sofia District. Four young girls go house to house round the village ritually singing in the spring: FTX-788 - - Sofia District. The clashing seconds, that figure so prominently in many of the field songs, help to carry the sound far. Actually, one of the many functions of such songs is to let the people of the village know that all is well with their women in a distant field. Three women: FTX-789 - Songs & Dances rec by Deben Bhattacharya: ARGO ZFB-47 1968 - Entertainment & dance prog BALKANTON 107 - S Bulgaria F/S & Instrum BALKANTON 214 - CANTOMETRICS - THE PENNYWHISTLERS NONESUCH H-72007 & 72024 - Village Music rec Ethel Raim & Martin Koenig: NONESUCH H-72034 & H 7-11 - coll & ed A L Lloyd: TOPIC 12-T-107 1964 - Nadia Karadjova: WOMAD TB-3 - LE MYSTERE DES VOIX BULGARES 4AD (with MADAGASIKANA) Diaphonic Chant incl talk about women's voices etc: cassetee dub by Chris Dabbs 1988 CASS-0061- National Sound Archive rec from 1930's of string orch with trumpet: Radio 2 Xmas Prog 30/12/87 CASS-0423-4 - Woman's Choir CASS-0034: - women singing in 2nds "Folk on 2" 28/4/88 CASS-90-1051 - Radio 2: 28/12/88: CASS-60-0547 - "Vocal Traditions of Bulgaria: Village songs from the archives of Radio Sofia SAYDISC CD-SDL-396 1992/ CD-1168 - Ivan KIRFEV (p-acc) with orchestra/ Traicho SINAPOV (p-acc) playing for wedding (from BALKANTON): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

BURMA - Classical piece about the strange and beautiful flowers of the forest, played on the pattala (xylophone) and flute: FTX-782 - Urban music with the distinctively humorous Burmese touch, performed by a vocally athletic male singer with oboe, flute, drum and gong frame (12 tuned gongs): FTX-784

BURUNDI -- OCORA OCR-40 Prizewinner 1968/ CASS-0121 9box) - WOMAD WEA-KG- 8045 Drums of Makebu - Drummers with ECHO & THE BUNNYMEN - TB2 Burundi girls & drummers

CAMBODIA -- EMI HLP 1 History of Music - Lullaby with instruments

CAMEROON -- OCORA OCR-25/ CASS-0126 (box)

CANADA - see also USA: American Indian - Douglas KENNEDY talks about tour of "The Folk Five" in 1928: FTX-481-493 (on FTX-491-2) - French Canadian farm girls leader & group/ A Caribou Eskimo shaman singing a magic nonsense chant to bring luck to the hunt. Male solo: FTX-781 - Newfoundland. A fisherman's dance song resembling the U.S. fiddle songs/ Cayuga. A Corn Dance song from the Iroquois eight nation confederacy . Male leader with male chorus and rattle: FTX-783 - Canadian Plains, Blood. The Grass Dance. a war song in the high-pitched, forceful style common among Amerindian hunters. Male chorus with drum/. A Nova Scotian remembers one of the comic British ballads her ancestors brought with them into the New World: FTX-784 - French Canada. Gaspe. Northern ballad of the kidnapped maiden/ French Canada fur-trappers paddled across the continent and back to such gay ballads. Male solo: FTX-785 - Alan MILLS (voc) accomp by Steve BENBOW (gtr): FTX-905 - RPL LP 24566 Perry FRIEDMAN (with banjo) 12s rec by PK, London 1958 - RPL LP 24697 Raoul ROY (with gtr) rec London 7/4/59 (in French) - LP 24896-7 Alan MILLS (Fr & Engl) accomp Steve BENBOW (gtr) rec London 15-17/6/59 - CHANT DU MONDE Epinette de Vosges incl A3 song from Canada "Un matin je me sis levee" (also on COLUMBIA) - COLUMBIA SL-211 World Lib (coll Marius Barbeau) incl Engl French Gaelic Indian & Eskimo/ CASS 0047 -ELEKTRA EKL-23 Nova Scotia Cape Breton - EMI CLP-1362 1960 Steve BENBOW "Paddy and the Whale" (coll Greenleaf Newfoundland) - CLP-1604 Jack LANGSTAFF - FOLKWAYS FE-4307 Maritime FS coll Helen Creighton Nova Scotia - FG-3531 1960 Jean CARIGNAN (fid/ clogger) Toronto taxidriver - FM-4006 F/M from Nova Scotia coll Helen CREIGHTON - Marie HARE (unacc singer) rec by Sandy Paton, Strathadon, NB, Canada 1961: FOLK LEGACY FSC-9 1962 - IAN (TYSON) & SYLVIA: VANGUARD VRS-9154 "The Northern Journey" - LEADER LEA-4057 1967 Edith Fowke coll 1957-1964/ CASS 0159 - LIBRARY OF CONGRESS L-6 Six Nations Reserve (Indians) - RCA VICTOR LEP-1020 Arcadie et Quebec (univ Laval 1950) - RIVERSIDE RLP-12-601 Ed McCURDY - SHENACHIE 14001 1978 Angus CHISHOLM (fid) with piano CASS-60-0971 - RODEO RLP-25/ CASS-0232 Waldo Thumbs MUNRO (Bar room piano) "Maritime House Party" (mainly Scottish) - TOPIC 12-T-140 1965 La Rena CLARK (Ontario) - TOPIC 12-TS-247 John KIRKPATRICK "Rose of Britain's Isle" (Newfoundland) - TOPIC 12-TS-353 1978 Gaelic trad in Cape Breton (songs/ fid) vol I/ CASS-0196 - TOPIC 12-TS-354 1978 (Vol 2) Fiddling - Linda DREW (v/gtr) rec CSH London 9/4/64 4'5"RTR-0409 "This Land of Ours" - CASS-0157 Arr by SANDY MOORE of Halifax NS with piano & other instruments - LA BOUTINE SOURIANTE (French-Canadian Band) incl fiddle & step-dancer rec Mariposa Festival: Radio 2 Xmas Prog 30/12/87 CASS-0423-4 - Dieppe Raid with Canadian Division 19/8/42 with commentator Frank GILLARD & others Radio 4 19/8/82: CASS 60-0628 - Jean CARIGNAN (Quebec fid) with Aly BAIN "Down Home" (TV Series) in USA & Canada LISMOR LIF-7011 1986 CASS 0814/ Also LA BOTTINE SOURIANTE (vocals/ band) with "L'Isle des Voyageurs" followed by Reel - "The Barra McNeil's" (Instr group from Nova Scotia): Radio 2: 19/10/88: CASS-15-0699 - Tom KINES: RCA Victor PC/PCS 1014 CASS-0233 & 1209 acc Russell THOMAS - Rufus GUINCHARD (fid) St John's Newfoundland "Humouring the Tunes" SING SONG SS-9091 1990 CASS-1214 - - Willie TAYLOR (fid), Joe HUTTON (N-pipes) & Will ATKINSON (harmonica) rec by Burt Feintuch 1994: SMITHSONIAN-FOLKWAYS SFW-40473 1999 "Danse de Chez Nous" & Aunt Mary's Canadian Jig" - Rejean SIMARD (Quebec 3-row diatonic accordion) & Raynald OUELLET (1 track each): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Rain Dance performed by George BUCK, "Red Jacket" & group with water-drum & horn rattle rec by National Film Coard, Grand River Reserve, Ontario: from World Library ed by Marius Barbeau/ ROUNDER CD 1700 1997

CAPE BRETON ISLAND - Nova Scotia, Canada -- ELEKTRA EKL-23 1955 10" - TOPIC 12-TS-353 1978 Gaelic song - 12-TS-354 vol 2 fiddling - Triona ni Donnell with RELATIVITY (incl Ham dulc) rec EBU Festival Denmark RPL Radio 2 13/1/88 CASS 0422 - Buddy McMASTER (fid)/ CAPE BRETON FIDDLERS/ Jerry HOLLAND (fid) with Aly BAIN "Down Home" (TV Series) in USA & Canada LISMOR LIF-7011 1986 CASS-0814

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS - with Portuguese & West African influences - Antonio SANCHES (voc) & Ishota SUARI (3-row acc) with "ferro" (rhythm iron): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

CARIBBEAN - including - ANGUILLA - ANTIGUA - ANTILLES - BAHAMAS - CARRIACOU (Grenadine) - DOMINICA - GRENADA - GUADELOPE - JAMAICA - MARTINIQUE - NEVIS - St BATHELEMY - St KITTS - St LUCIA - TRINIDAD -Bahamas: - Group of men from Andros Island rec by Alan Lomax, Nassau 1935 (Afro-Americans with overlap parts in a ballad about the loss of the vessel Praetoria, in a hurricane. Mixed group/ male group: FTX-781 - Carriacou sea peasants spontaneously join in on a little refrain that animates a traditional cante-fable or tale-with song/ Nevis men singing their version of a traditional British sea chanty as they row/ Grenada: A local Shango cult leader and her neighbors sing in overlapping, two-phrase unison, accompanied by drum and large rattle. Female solo and mixed group/ Carriacou polyrhythmic transformation of a conventional Protestant hymn. Mixed group/ Bongo dancing enlivens the nine-day wakes of Trinidad. Because drums were once legally out-lawed, the bongo rhythmic background is still performed on disposable bamboo strips. Male group accompanied on sticks: FTX-782 - Martinique mountain folk dasnce (bele) with three drums (the deeper drum in the lead) overlapping each other - a West Indian formula: FTX-783 - Trinidad. Toco. The singer may be exaggerating precise enunciation, free rhythm and especially tremolo to indicate the foreigness of this English folk lyric. Male solo/ St. Barthelemy. A lobster fisherman sings a flowery French lyric song typical of the 17th century survivals on this island. Male solo/ Bahamas. From Andros Island, a notably egalitarian and complementary culture, comes this standard hymn tune sung in the swinging anthem style of the sponge fishermen. Three men: FTX-785 - Martinique. Up in the hills, the small farmers maintain a strongly African pattern of life. Male leader with male chorus and three drums: FTX-786 - Martinique. An example of a West African two-phrase leader-re-sponse style/ Tobago. African hoe agriculture was continued in the Caribbean slave and cash-crop cultures, where, until lately, one and two-phrase melodic forms were dominant. The text hints that the mother is at work and a child is minding the baby: FTX-787 - Bahamas Andros Island funeral anthem as sung in parts an the sponge-fishing fleet. Three men. (Harmony)/ Trinidad where virile games and licentious pastimes, like this lewd bongo dance, are performed at wakes for the dead: FTX-788 - Trinidad. "The Tiger", a calypsonian star improvises a satirical portrait of a well known local character- the kind of song that might be employed in a battle of wit and improvisation between two calypso singers: FTX-789 - ARHOOLIE 1061 Joseph SPENCE & blues Guitar - LIB OF CONGRESS L-5 Cat Island & L-8 Cat Island & Nassau - NONESUCH H-7-11 2 tracks group & trio - POLYDOR 236-581 1969 rec Peter Siegel & Jody Stecher 1965 -- SOCIETY 919 1963 Roy GUEST "Bahaman Lullaby" - Sea Shanty Group with female lead and men in chorus rec by Alan Lomax, Aug 1962, La Fortune, St Patricks, Grenada/ Call and response song in French Creole, rec by Alan Lomax, Vieux Fort, St Lucia July 1962: ROUNDER 1700 1997 "Luce-O, Luce Mauvais" - Children rec by Alan Lomax 1962: ROUNDER CD-1716 1997 : ROUNDER 1700 1997 "Roll, roll, roll and go" - Dominica & children in Anguilla rec by Alan Lomax, 1962: ROUNDER CD-1716 1997 "Brown Girl in the Ring" - Christmas Album includes "The Red Ants" Group "The Motion Tune" rec by AL Gingerland, Nevis 1962: 1719 - Sampler of Caribbean: 1721 - "East Indian Music in the West Indies": 1722 - Antilles, St Lucia, St Vincent, Grenadines, Los Testigos, Tobago, Dominica: 1724 - Trinidad: 1725 - Funerary Music of Carriacou & Grenada: 1726 - Funerary Music of Carriacou (Grenadine): 1727 - Grenada: - Selection of Creole & Yoruba Voices: 1728 - Martinique: 1730, Nevis & St Kitts: incl Tea Meetings, Christmas Sports & The Moonlight Night: 1731 - Carriacou Dance: "The Lancers": RPL LP 25787 - Dominica Mummers Play: RPL LP 34508 - Edith PERRIN rec by Frank & Anne Warner, NYC 1941: APPLESEED APR-CD-1035 2000 - BRUTE FORCE Steel Band & Antigua Steel Bands - MERRYMAKERS Steel Band: RTR-0791 & 0793/ FTX-917 - Anon: West Indies rec RTR-0445/ cass: 0064 Radio 3 25/1/79: Reggae, Calypso & Folksongs - John PEARSE on "Calling the tune" Home Service #8 11/3/63 "Ol Lady masher me toe" - STEEL & SKIN (Steel pans & elec gtrs) rec by PK, Bristol July 1984: CASS 45-0641 - Extracts of "Freedom City" rec by PK, Student's Union, Bristol 23/7/82: CASS 60-0642 - Siano ARIAS (melodeon) with singers & bass rec 1989: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 (Arias died 1995) - Jamaica: 4 instrumental items on message-size tape from Jamaica School of Music, Kingston 1956(?): 2"RTR-1189 Fiddle, rattles & e nsemble -West Indies rec RTR-0445 - CASS-0037 [Folkways] - CASS-0185 Jamaican Folksingers rec Bristol 1982 - CASS-0639-42 Bristol 1982 - EMI CLP-1500 1962 Cliff HALL of Spinners - FOLKWAYS P-453 rec Edgar Seagar - FONTANA STL-5431 1967 SPINNERS - STL-5495 1969 LIVERPOOL SPINNERS "Island Woman" - Veronica FERON (of St Annes Bay) rec by PK, Gloucester 13/8/90 "I am a little teapot" CASS-0037 - ELOISE TRIO: CASS-45-0639 - THE MERRYMEN: CASS 45-0640 - CASS-0641-0692 Colston Conference, Bristol JAMAICA FAREWELL - - Cliff HALL of SPINNERS on Radio 9/11/82: CASS-0407 "Mandy" -LIVERPOOL SPINNERS: EMI SCX-6493 1972 - Elda BLACKWOOD (of Jamaica) rec by Frank & Anne Warner, NYC USA 1947: APPLESEED APR-CD-1035 2000 "Two Little Blackbirds" & "Uncle Ned" - Trinidad & Tobago -- RPL 23930 rec by Ernest Eytle 1955 (also 18900 "shouters" dancing & 23644 popular songs (not in Lib) - CANTOMETRICS 90-016 A2/6 & 90-017 B1/4 Song about mother at work / CASS-0644-6 Bristol - NONESUCH H-7-11 (S) Highlife Steel Band - John PEARSE (voc/ gtr) "Calling the tune #8 6/3/63 ("Old Woman you") "Masher me toe" - WOMAD 002 Calypso "Loraine" at Carnival (mentions taxi to London Airport) also on CASS-0006 - West Indies broadcast items for PK incl Blind BLAKE "Delia": RTR-0445/ CD 945 - children in Trinidad rec by Alan Lomax, 1962: ROUNDER CD-1716 1997 - Cyprus SMITH & others with accomp on "croix-crois sticks" rec by Alan Lomax, Diego Martin, Trinidad 25/4/62: ROUNDER 1700 1997 -- Neville MARCANO, "Growling TIGER, & Lord Airey in Calypsi "Duel" with group & flute, fiddle & guitar, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad 1936: ROUNDER 1700 1997 "War" - Ram GOPAUL with sarangi (fiddle), tabla (drum) & dhantal (cymbals) rec by Alan Lomax, Charleville, Trinidad 6/5/62: ROUNDER 1700 1997 "Religious Bhajan" - St Barthelemy; ROUNDER CD-1822 1999



CATALONIA (Spain) - EL BALL DE BASTONS Centre de Promocio de la Cultura Catalunya Series 2/ Vol 2 CD 2001 - Josep VERDAGUER i Portet ROVIRETES EL FLABIOLAIRE Series 2/ Vol3 CD 2003 (Gifts of Angel Vallverdu, Stroud July 2004)


CHILE -- A Chilean narrative song performed in solo with the guitar in traditional Spanish style, but with Amer-indian touches in the big leaps, the irregular meter, and the one-beat feeling of the guitar. Male solo/ The old, 3-phrase, Castillian ballad style vigorously surviving in Chile. Female solo with guitar: FTX-787 - Margot Loyola with piano: RPL 22277 & 33352 - (22279/ 30420-1/ 32382 from Atacam desert area

CHINA - see also MONGOLIA - TIBET - Musical Instruments of the World: FTX-700 - A professional female soloist accompanied by a plucked lute and flute in a Chinese musical drama from Macao, Canton: FTX-783 - A work song for hauling barges through the rapids on the Yangtze: FTX-784 - Szechuan. The open-throated style of these all-too-rare S.W. Chinese work songs resembles that of Tibet and Mongolia and is a departure from the pinched-voice embroidery one usually hears from Chinese singers: FTX-785 - "Chinese High Moon", a piece of contemplative music from the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618 - 906) played on nan hsiao (flute) and pip'a (lute) by two males. (Levy #3, B1): 787 - Tee Ping Liang playing "cheng" (banjo): rec London 21/6/58: (RPL 22841/ 26445-6/ 33102) - Canton theatre: 912 B1/10 Barge-hauling song on Yangtze River: 913 A4/17 - S Zechuan work song: 914 A2/6 High Moon piece on flute & lute: 915 B2/12 - History of Music Jeng/Chyn orch: EMI HLP-1 - "Chinese Bamboo Flute Music" (Shakuhachi) accomp by fiddle, gtr, percussion & synth Delta Music 1993 (licensed from TRADITION RECORDS): LASERLIGHT CD 12.183 Jing Ying from Hong Kong: (Cassette) SAYDISC CSDL 325 - Tiau Jin (song & dance group): WOMAD 1 1982 "raindrops pattering on banana leaves" - "The Very Best of Chinese Music" ("Oriental Cherry Happiness descending on the house") with Wang Zhangzhu (bipa), Zher Shangzhan (erhu) & Lin Zhangbi (piano): CHINA RECORD CO QL-9 1983/ CASS 1361 - 15-pipe "lusheng" (reed mouth organ) & another track of Zhang GUOPING (p-acc): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

COLOMBIA - South America -- Sylvia MOORE: FTX-137 - S.W. Poplayan Christmas music fiesta orchestras of flutes, panpipes and drums: FTX-781 - Colombia, Choco. Cholo Indians, deep in the rain forest, carriers of a diffusely-organized, pre-conquest culture, sounding a six-hole flute with maraccas and cymbals: FTX-783 - small tape of EL PATACORE (9'00) rec Sylvia Moore & Bernard Broere 1979: RTR-0450: FTX-938 - Pan-pipes Rio Guaviario: COLUMBIA SL 212 - Black Music rec by David Lewiston 1970: NONESUCH H-72036 - Toto la Momposina (Soledad): WOMAD 002 - cassette of S American 78rpm discs from Kitty Turner: CASS-0091/ BARCLAY 820 054 LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia - Rafael OROZCO (voc) with Israel ROMERO (3-row acc) with bass & another track from Lisandro MEZA (acc) playing "Cumbia de las Locos": ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 (Vallenato music)

COOK ISLANDS -- CANTOMETRICS 90-011 A1/26 Male & female groups - 90-017 A1/30 Puka-puka (W Polynesia)

CORSICA --The rugged hills have protected many ancient Mediterranean traditions, among them battles of poetic improvisation where local poets spontaneously rhapsodise on assigned themes. This one begins in Virgilian style. "Waken, O my muse, do your best for me". Embellished male solo: FTX-786 - COLUMBIA SL-207/ 615


CZECH REPUBLIC & SLOVAKIA:-- Vlaxi Rom European gypsies FTX-608 - World Instruments FTX-700 - Moravia. Traditional shepherd flute polyphony: FTX-781 - Slovakia. wind and string ensemble: FTX-782 - Klenovec, near Bratislava, bowed lutes and cymbaloms, playing flowing counter-rhythms/ West Moravia (Iglau). A traditional village string ensemble from the part of Europe that gave rise to the symphony orchestra: FTX-783 - W. Bohemian peasant girls' choir with a string orchestra (bass in lead) collaborate in heterophony/ Slovakia. A flageolet solo in shepherd style: FTX-787 - Slovakia, Hrcava village. A wide-voiced male loudly declaims a wordy song: FTX-788 - Songs & dances rec by Deben Bhattacharya: ARGO ZFB-59 1972 / SPA-212 sampler - Moravian folksongs & dances ARTIA ALP-153 - Zatiovne a dozienkove piesne SUPRAPHON 0-89-9878 (7"EP)


DAHOMEY -- OCORA OCR-17/ CASS-0130 (box)

DENMARK - see also ESKIMO - FAROES -- AUSTRALIAN ABC RRCS 131 Percy GRAINGER's orchestral arr of 2 folksongs coll 1922-7 with Evald Taug Kristensen "The Power of Love" & "Lord Peter's Stable Boy" - LARRIKIN LRF Grainger piano roll "Jutish Medley" - MXP CD 0196/ 0198/ 0199 "Folk Music from Denmark" - TOPIC 12- TS-378 1977 Vin GARBUTT "Den Toppede Hone" (instrumental) with Irish Hornpipe - 12-TS-419 1981 Dick GAUGHAN "Randers Hopsa" (instr) - EBU Folk Orch RPL Radio 2 13/1/88 CASS-0422 - Carl Erik Lundgaard JENSEN (melodeon) with Poul NELD (fiddle) & Keld Noergaard KRISENSON (piano): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 "Oxbol Polka/ Labri" - TRADLADS: TLCD-001 1997 Irish Songs & dance-tunes - Ostinat Expressen: CRYPTO CD-9901 1999



ECUADOR -- Sylvia MOORE: FTX-137 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - rec in field by Bernard Broere & Sylvia Moore (Colombian border): FTX-938 - NONESUCH H-72036 Black Music of S America - Cassette dub of "Kitty Turner's coll of 78rpm discs of South American music": CASS-0091 (BARCLAY 820-054) LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia

EGYPT -- Nile Drummers: WOMAD TB 2 - Hassam RAMZY (voc/ quarter-tone p-acc) with percussion rec 1993: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

ESKIMO - Southampton Island. Eskimo medicine men and shamans often employ a low-pitched, raspy delivery in their healing songs, exaggerating the vocal qualities usually distinctive of males. The message is: Father or Grandfather is looking after you - Hudson Bay. A magic rune to help the hunt - with characteristic nonsense syllables, irregular rhythm and the with the characteristic pattern of harsh voice of the tireless hunter. Male solo/ Greenland, Eskimo. This stylistically typical song consists of strings of nonsense syllables set to the very complex irregular accompaniment of a frame drum beaten by a stick: FTX-784 - COLUMBIA SL-211 Canada Caribou Eskimaux/ CASS-0047

ETHIOPIA (formerly Abyssinia) -- 34 tribes rec by Jean Jenkins 1966-9: BARENREITER 2304-5 Jean Jenkins recs - HUNGARY NEPRAJZ ETHNO MUSEUM 1966 Songs - OCORA OCR-75 1971 Ralph Harrisson/ Ragnar Johnson/ CASS-0146 (box) - cass of Jean Jenkins Radio 3 1974 Intro to African Music - RTR-1174 Jean Jenkins

EUROPE -- WOMAD Intro to Europe CASS-0077

FAROES - (Island Group belonging to DENMARK) -- "Two Sisters" Ballad danced RTR 1082 - 7"RTR-1085 (with Norwegian & Shetland music)/ CASS-30- 0536 - Sung-Dance Group rec by Tom ANDERSON CASS-0436 - Fiddle Group led by Alasdair Cochran (of Glasgow) RPL Radio 2 20/9/89: CASS-0487 Achdon House (Wedding March from Shetland)

FINLAND - see also LAPLAND - RUSSIA -- World Festival held at Pamplona & Biarritz 1953 Finnish Wedding Dance with fid: FTX-610 - World Instrum: fid FTX-700 - Karelia. A choir of peasant girls from the northern wooded province near Finland: FTX-782 - Lapps. These Finno-Ugric reindeer-herders compose "joiks", songs that briefly fix some place or incident, in a pattern of nonsense syllables, characterized by uneven phrasing and glottal delivery, the principal song type of the peoples of Siberia, seem to be the source of much Amer-indian song: FTX-783 - S. Karelia. The precisely enunciated, syllabic, minor-keyed cadences of this song are "typically" Finnish: FTX-788 - ARGO ZFB-43 & SPA-212- FINLANDIA FA-327 1981 Tapiola Choir - FINLAND FOLKMUSIC INST KILP-1 1975 Kantela (CASS-0060) - - KALEVALAN NUORETEN LITTO Quartet - (Gift from Pirko) KANSANMIIKKI INSTITUTION Kantele - ONDINE ODE-785-4 1992 "SININEN JA VALKIONEN" (Finland in Song) Tapiola Choir ONDINE ODE-785-4 1992 (Sepate Booklet) - Christmas Songs: RPL LP 26150 - EBU Contemp Folk Festival on Radio 2 5/4/83: CASS-0410 - Maria KALANIEMI (5-row button accordion): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeeze-box" 1995 "Skymningspolskan"

FRANCE - see also BASQUE COUNTRY - BELGIUM - BRITTANY - CANADA - CHANNEL ISLANDS - CORSICA - FRENCH GUIANA --- World instruments: FTX-700 - Auvergne lullaby in "Langue d'Oc (an early form of French known as "Occident"), sung by a cultivated female soloist with oboe accompaniment: FTX-783 - W. France, Poitou. Verses from an ironic ballad about how a lover, hiding in a chest, is forgotten and eaten by the rats. The performance is in the impersonal, story-telling, ballad style. Male solo/ Paris guildsmen sing that "love of the Virgin should link the compagnons together in a strong web." Male leader with male group: FTX-784 - Gascony, D'Artagnan's home. Such venders' songs have always enlivened Mediterranean city streets: FTX-785 - Berry. Remote country districts in France still stage elaborate wedding ceremonies, with banquets that last for a day or two and many traditional wedding songs. Male solo: FTX-786 - Normandy. A comic ballad in the burry nasal voice and somewhat irregular meter typical of much of French folk singing: FTX-787 - Martin Caylan (cabrette & musette with accordion & banjo) coll by Peter Crossley-Holland (on cass): RPL LP 27934 (See also card index) - BEAU TEMPS BT-3801 - Selection of Cafe Music (selected by Dartington Students) CASS-0057 - Epinette des Vosges (dulcimer) CHANT DU MONDE LDX-74536 - Field rec coll by Alan Lomax: COLUMBIA SL-207 - Mougiano de Frejus (Provence): DISKAN DK 015/ CASS 0088 Folk dances & songs: CASS 0089 - copy of 78 rpm discs of French dances (loaned by Fred Austin 1978): CASS-0359 (& 0089) - Dub of 78 rpm disks (SOLEIL) - Raoul ROY (voc/ gtr) rec London 7/4/59: RPL LP 24697 - Alain STIVELL: FONTANA 6325-304, 6399-008 & 9101-500/ PHILIPS 6414-406 - coll by Marcel Dubois & Andral (2 copies): MUSEE NATIONAL ATP-69 (7" LP)/ CASS#0099 - Tom KINES (Canadian) acc Russell THOMAS: [RCA VICTOR PC/PCS-1014/ CASS#0233 - Songs from Correze: TOPIC 12-T-246 1974 - Manitas de PLATA Ste Marie de la Mer: VOGUE LVLX-261 -- SONGS OF THE AUVERGNE (sung in Languedoc dialect transcribed from CANTELOUBE) sung by Susan REED with Chamber Group: CBS M-61359 1951 - Andre VERCHUREN le roi de l'accordeon vol 3: MUSIDISC CO-1258 - WOMAD TB-3 1982 TI JAZZ - Pat Rush talking about French F/M Revival: Radio 2 16/11/82 - CASS-0039 Claude Achard of Pezenas, Herault talking about Languedoc customs - HUGO (mel) rec by PK, Paris Film Conference 21/8/85: CASS-0382 - French Button Accordionists from Bruno Kowalezyk 4/4/86: CASS-0383 - "Boest an Diaoul L'Accordeon en Pays de Gavotte Anche Libre & Dastum nn nd (purchased 7/2/88) CASS-1158 (separate book by Bernars Lasbleiz) - Gus VISEUR (musette): ELLIPSIS ARTS CDs "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Video #18 Herault Hobby horse & Garland Dance. "La Joute" (Languedoc) - rec UK - SHUSHA: TANGENT TGS-114 - Alistair ANDERSON (Bagpipes): TOPIC 12-TS-371 1978 - TROTTO: FOREST TRACKS FT-6004 cass French dances - John WRIGHT with JENKIN'S EAR, Guernsey F/Group rec 1994: CASS-1301 (French sea shanties) - - BLOWZABELLA: PLANT LIFE PLR-038 1982

FRIEZLAND - part of Netherlands -- PHILIPS 6440-135 Accordion music (bequest)

GABON -- OCORA OCR-41/ CASS-0120 (box)

GAMBIA -- AFRIDISC TPM 45/101-2 Senegambian (Worloff) - VIRGIN VX-1006 KONTE family - WOMAD Talking Book Amadu JOBARTCH playing Kora (Griot tradition) - Dembo KONTE (Cora) Radio 2 1/4/87: CASS-90-0567

GEORGIA - Caucasus - A well-rehearsed Choir singing an arranged folk song: FTX-782 - Kakhete, Shilda Region. A lullaby melody performed by a chorus of twenty women/ An early high culture whose hocketing, yodeling style might be one source of European counterpoint. Male chorus: FTX-788

GERMANY --- WL-5334 Bavarian yodelling song with accordion rec 1953 IFMC Festival : FTX-610 - World Instruments dance music & "hummel" (dulc): FTX-700 - Woodcutter's yodel, male solo: FTX-781 - Wurttemburg. A comic surrealist, peasant dance-song for mixed group and brass band/ famous Kurt Weill "jazz' number. Female solo with strings, winds, horns and percussion accompaniment: FTX-783 - A woodcutter's song from the Carpathian mountains. Male solo: FTX-784 - Swabia. A teasing dialogue of courtship set to a widely-known folk tune. Male solo/ German enclave in Hungary. A medieval ballad about a girl who saves her brother from hanging by running nine times naked round the gallows. Female solo/ Emsland. Children, going from house to house for gifts on Martinmas Day, sing the familiar children's descending minor third cadence: FTX-785 - A standard youth movement song about the death of the pastor's cow. Female solo: FTX-786 - A Berlin academic choir demonstrates the old style Gregorian chant a European variant on the Eastern liturgical tradition rhythmically free, long-phrased and highly melismatic. Male group: FTX-787 - Emsland. A lullaby sung in the 'covered' (wide, softened) voice so frequent in Central Europe/ Ballad of a love encounter set to a common German tune and in the polyphony that may be native to Central Europe. Male chorus: FTX-788 - Uberlingen Sword Dance rec 8/7/56: RPL LP 23649 - CAMERA SM 95015 SCHNUCHENACK (Gypsies) Django Reinhart tradition - CASS-0054 -Regensburg Museum coll COLOSSEUM SM 3014 - DECCA (6) 21606 Der Grosse Zapferstreich (Marches) - NDR Group: Brecht's "Die Idioten Club" rec EBU Festival Denmark RPL Radio 2 13/1/88 CASS-0422

GHANA - Fra-fra tribesmen (vocal, rattle & fiddle), Nangodi, Northern Territory 1964: CBS 66218 1970 (Song LEGACY 086334 2003) "The Story of the Blues" - TANGENT TGS-113 Mustapha Tettey ADDA - TGS-115 Kpanlogo Party with OBADE - WOMAD Warner WEA KG-8045 Group - TB-2 2 groups drummers - 002 Orchestre Jerzira & Kpanlogo percussion - CASS 0075 WOMAD 1982 Ashanti/ Gabrone/ Fra Fra/ Dagomba/ Kassas & Dagarti


GREECE - incl CRETE -- Epirus. An interlude in an epic about a brave woman who drowned herself to avoid enslavement by the Turks, saying: 'May I never be seen to bow and kiss hands: I am the wife of Botzaris and sister of Notis, I carry bullets in my skirt...' Violin, clarinet and plucked lutes: FTX-782 - . A Cretan Syrtos which, like much of Cretan tradition, has its roots in the classic past. Male solo accompanied by lyre and lute: FTX-784 - A song in the epic style of the heroic klefts, the patriotic Greek mountaineers who struggled against Turkish rule for centuries. Male solo with lute/ Crete. A highly embellished, wordy, male, solo complaint from an ancient, complex, urbanized and stratified culture: FTX-785 - Crete wedding processional. Male group: FTX-786 - A Peloponnesian dance of the shuffle style, with dancers in a line and moving sideways to an aksak pattern, played on glissando fiddle and plucked chordophone: FTX-787 - Popular Music of Greece: ALBATROS VPA 8298 - Greece in music & song (1 item only from Crete): ARGO ZFB-70 - CANTOMETRICS 90-912-5 - Dances & f/s Central & Eastern Macedonia: LYCEUM LCGW-103 - Bouzookee: NONESUCH HS-72004 - - coll by Wolf Dietrich TOPIC 12-TS-231 - Jorges MANGAS (clarinet rec Globestyle: Radio 2 on 9/9/87: CASS-0403

GREENLAND -- CASS-0087 Inuit "Throat Songs" accordion dances incl accordion, guitar & chorus



GUIANA - French Guiana -- Kalina Indians, jungle fishers and manioc gardeners, sing a song of nonsense syllables, set to an irregular meter. Male solo: FTX-786 - Oyana Caribs. The women produce the bread (and beer) from manioc, the men fish and hunt in the game-scarce jungle; this is a song, close to one of their jungle cries, for luring monkeys within blow-gun shot. Male group: FTX-788 - 90-916 B1/4 Dyana Caribs - monkey luring song

GUYANA -- -- FONTANA STL-5495 1969 SPINNERS "Brown Boy" (comp by David Campbell) - WOMAD TB-3 1982 "Fast forward into dub"


HOLLAND -- (RPL 23853) Dances from different regions incl Friesland (not in Lib) - (RPL 24641) Fishermen's choir (not in Lib) - BELGIAN BRT DL 111-427 Ballad in Dutch by old man - Dutch tune rec Tristan de Cunha: FTX-609 - IFMC Festival Pamplona 1953 Friesland dance with stamping & clapping: FTX-610 - MUNICH MU-7440 Harmonika (Accordion) - MU-7424 TAIL TODDLE (group) - NOS-6814-230 Folklore Archive - PHILIPS 10388 Sylvia MOORE & Bernard BROERE rec Amsterdam - 6440-135 Friesland accordions - Tape of Friesland music from Dr Goslinger, Harberton, Devon 1980: RTR-0469 - VERENIG NG UP001 Netmaker's Songs - Pat Rush talks about Dutch F/M Revival on RPL Radio 2: 22/8/83 CASS-15-0790 - 4 accordion players on Radio 2 Jan 1993 CASS-0488 - Midwinter Horn solo: ROUNDER 1719 1998

HONDURAS -- Honduras, Valle. Two guitars (European) playing a waltz European) in irregular meter (Amerindian) in rough unison (also Amerindian). This is a frequent mestizo-American pattern.

HONG KONG -- RPL LP 27955-61 (not in Lib) - JING YING Soloists: SAYDISC CSDL-325 cass

HUNGARY - see also KLEZMER -- Euro-gypsies FTX-608 - QUALITON LPX-10095-8 a boxed set of 4 LPs of f/m ed Rajeczky with notes & photos 1964/ CASS- 0103-4 (box)/ FTX-641-642 - Moravia: FTX-643 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - At mid-winter men go house to house, singing "colinde" (carols) to bring their neighbours luck in the coming year. Mixed group with drums: FTX-781 - A performance by peasant girls with 'new style' lyric song: FTX-782 - Slow "czardas" dance tune in (7/8) meter, performed in unison by a male singer and fiddle: FTX-783 - A ballad of an outlaw hero performed in declamatory style with wide leaps in irregular meter. Male solo/ This lyric, strophic song, from the bend of the Danube has the wide-leaps-that so impressed Bartok and that may indicate the ties of old Hungarian melodism with its place of origin in Central Asia. Female solo: FTX-786 - Transylvania. An 'old style' Magyar piece, unornamented, in strict, simple meter and quick tempo. Male solo/ An old style Hungarian lyric for dancing, in unison and in irregular meter. Female group: FTX-788 - Bucharest. A doina sung by Marie Lateretu, now dead, was one of the world's great vocal artists: FTX-789 - World of Travel ARGO SPA 212(sampler)- ARGO ZFB-49 1971 Songs & Dances rec by Deben Bhattachaya - "Moravian Folk Songs and Dances" : ARTIA ALP-153 1960 Gift of Henrietta Yurchenko - CASS-0035 Zither music - HUNGAROTON LPX-11477 Gregorian Chants - NEPRAJZI 1966 cass dub: Ethno museum field rec: demo of instruments - OCORA OCR-54 7" LP Popular music/ CASS-0109 (box) - PRIVATE Boxed set of Tatar f/s rec Budapest 1975 - WOMAD TB-3 1982 Muzikas - ARGO ZFB-60 1972 "Ungarescha" Vic GAMMON & Trevor CROZIER'S BROKEN CONSORT - Martha SEBASTIAN & Group on Radio 2: 6/6/90 CASS-60-0882

IBIZA -- rec Alan Lomax incl Mallorca & Spain: COLUMBIA SL-216 / CASS 0051

ICELAND: -- Langspiel zither (RPL LP 30777) - FTX-306 Hugh LUPTON: Loki Death of Balder (story in English) - FTX-700 World Instruments: Langspiel - EMI ODEON MOAK-17 Islenzk Rimnalog: Rimur Songs (sung Epic Poetry) rec John Levy nd - TRADITION TSR-006 RIPLEY WAYFARERS: "East Wind" - Icelandic Song by Norwegian group at EBU Festival in Denmark introd Cyril Tawney: CASS-0341

INDIA incl PAKISTAN - see also SRI LANKA - World Instrumentals: FTX-700 - Benares: Hindi religious folk song about Krishna and his love for the lovely milkmaid, Radha, male village chorus/ Nepal: song popular in Kathmandu: female solo with drum: FTX-781 - C. India, Gond: Alternations between male and female groups, with sticks, drums and flutes in polyrhythm: FTX-782 - Manikpur, Meithei. A priestess sings a hymn to the Earth Mother, accompanied by a pena (bowed lute)/ Bengal. A morning raga, male solo with bowed lute, sitar, flute and drum accompaniment/ Kerala. An ancient type of TamiI orchestra; a musical bow hung with brass bells, Two-pitchers slapped with fiber pads, a small hour-glass drum, cymbals and clappers/ Kerala. A segment of the Kathakali, the magnificent dance drama tradition, where dancer-actors mime episodes from the Ramayana which are sung in heterophony with a heterophonic ensemble of drums, gongs and cymbals: FTX-783 - Nepal. Young Botean Sherpa girls of this Himalayan farmer-porter culture sing to greet European mountain climbers, "Welcome, where do you come from?'/ A fragment of a raga. Male solo with vina (violin): FTX-784 - Malaysia, Central Borneo, Dusun. A Young woman addresses the recordist. 'If you get our music back to your country, you will never forget us.': FTX-785 - The old high culture of India produces highly embellished songs for the ashram where the Vedantic traditions of Yoga are inculcated, in part, by such chants/ C. India, Madhya Pradesh. The Hill Saora Tribe; a ricefield work-song with much repetition and a narrow range/ Oriya tribal song about Sita and Ravana of the Ramayana legend/ Assam Abor hill tribes, living in small, independent villages, have a polyphonic song style half-way between that of Polynesia and Africa. Mixed group/ Kerala. Nyar women circling a lamp, clapping and singing - as is their custom during summer planting - a song in which the wives of a prince praise their husband/ Nepal. A religious chant from the Tamang, a tribe of mountain farmers in Central Nepal near Kathmandu. Male solo: FTX-786 - Oriya tribal song in two short phrases with repetitive text, notable raspy delivery and drum accompaniment/ N.W. India. Kashmir, fabled for its beauty, is like Georgia, fortunate in its climate, its mountain irrigation economy and its rich heritage of Middle Eastern culture, such as this tune for a nightingale. Flute and drone/ S. India. A Trivan drum song for Kathakali (mimed dance drama of Malabar) by male soloist with drums and cymbals/ Nepal. Female solo: FTX-787 S. India. A male leader and chorus of the Kuravan tribe of snake catchers and basket makers/ S. India, Kerala. An abjurgation to embrace spiritual and philosophical Vedantic truths, in a wave-like shape. Male solo/ S. India, Kerala. The Kuravan Tribe sings to Ganapate, god of wisdom, in a wordy, ornamented, free-rhythm style. The male leader is answered by a unified chorus, gliding through parallel thirds/ Kerala. The Kuravans are a wandering non-Hindu tribe of basket makers, snake catchers and day laborers. Male chorus: FTX-788 - West Bengal love song,in which a lover compares his sweetheart to a flower, sung by a male with a bowed lute (israj) and plucked lute (sitar): FTX-789 #04 - Village Band nr Delhi rec 1951: RPL 18083 - Land diving songs & slit gong with chant (not in Lib): RPL 30147 - COLUMBIA SL 215 ed by Alain Danielou/ ROUNDER 82161-1755-2 - CASS-0086/ EMI HMV- 1752 1963 10"LP cassete dub of Indian Flute Music by Panna Lal Gosh & Vijay Rhaghav Rao - NONESUCH H-7-11 (S) 6 tracks - H-72030 Rain Narayan (Sarangi) - H 72035 Bands of Bengal - OCORA OCR 47 Music from Rajasthan/ CASS-0116 (box) - OCORA OCR-81 Professional folk musicians of Rajasthan/ CASS 0142 (box) - Three ragas: OCORA OCR-69 - Swahunnan SARNA playing santur: OCORA OCR-77 - BATISH family (N India): TOPIC 12-T-191 - Item called ENGLISH NOTE played on Gotta Vadyam (instrum similar to Vina but with more sympathetic strings: CASS-0026 - East Indian Music in the West Indies (Guadelope & Trinidad): ROUNDER CD 1723 1999 - Nusrat Fateh Ali KHAN (Pakistan): WOMAD 1 1952 - Sufi QUAMNALI: WOMAD 002

INDONESIA - includes ARU ISLANDS - BALI - BORNEO - JAVA - MALAYSIA - MOLUCCAS - PHILIPPINES - NEW GUINEA - SARAWAK - VIETNAM - 1953 IFMC Festival Gamelan by London students/ FTX-610 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - Borneo, Dusun. One variation on the E. Asian mouth-organ is the "sampotan"/ Philippines: The Hanunoo live in small acephalous hamlets in the jungle; each person has his own yodeling trail call (uwi) to announce his approach through the heavy cover. Here several uwis are simultaneously performed by a mixed group: FTX-781- Male Group/ Bali Kechak (monkey dance). The moment in the Ramayana drama, when the monkey army rescues Sita, pits a legato female choir against an accelerating background, in imitation of monkey chatter. Male & female group with drum: FTX-782/ The "gamelan" gong orchestra/ Bali, where everybody takes a turn playing (metalophones, percussion, winds, strings) as it rehearses and performs long rituals and dance dramas/ Interior Malaya, Temiar. A mixed chorus from this small tribe intone a song sent by the Tiger Spirit. Accompanied on percussion tubes: FTX-783 - Malaysia, N. Borneo, Bajau. These Moslem Sea Dyaks live in family-sized canoes, gathering fish and seaweed. A sacred text from the Koran. Female solo/ C. Borneo. Land Dyaks sing a song for a head-hunting ritual. Male chorus with lute and horn/Malaysia, Philippines Magindanao. An epic chant by a Moro male/ Java. A female virtuoso produces a tone like a silver wire to a gamelan accompaniment: FTX-784 - Malaysia, N. Borneo. The Sea Dyak (Bajau) are also known as sea-gypsies, because they live and work and move from place to place in big family canoes, harvesting the shallow tropic seas and selling the sea weed and sea slugs they collect. They are Moslem converts, and here a woman embellishes verses from the Koran/ N. Borneo. The Murut are jungle, shifting-field, rice cultivators. This is a topical song improvised by a male singer at a drinking party/ Sarawak. An embellished.Sea-Dyak song recorded from a radio broadcast. Female solo/ E. New Guinea Highlands, Dani. Canonic polyphony with accelerating rhythm renews the singers' courage and prepares them to attack a nearby group that has slain one of their tribe: FTX-786 - Bali. One of the numerous forms of the gamelan (an orchestra of metalophones, flute and percussion instruments) is the Anklung, usually heard at funerary rites. Several males: FTX-787 - Java, where the gamelan accompanies one of the most accomplished virtuosos of Indonesia singing in a typical highly embellished, rhythmically free performance: FTX-789 - ARGO SPA 212 sampler incl Bali "Monkey Dance" - CHANT FDU MONDE LDX-74434 John WRIGHT & Trab Quang Hai (jews harp)- COLUMBIA SL-210 Indonesia incl Western New Guinea, Moluccas, Bali, Java (CASS 0046) - - NONESUCH H-7-11 Court gamelan with female singers - OCORA OCR-46 f/m from West Java/ CASS-0117 (box) - RPL LP 27257 rec NY 1962 - Small amateur group RPL LP 27257 "Sarinande" - 90-013 A2/16 Temiar Tiger Song - BARENREITER BM-30 L-2026 Musical Anthology 26 Alain Danielou - - - PRIVATE 2258 (78 rpm) Music of Pulambi (Sio Coast) - CASS 000070-1 Port Moresby (Papua): 2 cass of commercial pop music & reggae: THE BLACK BROTHERS hits - WATTLE ARCHIVE D-2 1958 Music of New Guinea 2 players rec Paris & Saigon OCORA OCR 68 / CASS 0150 (box) - Vietnam: Musique Mnong Gar (Gongs etc): OCR 80/ CASS 0143 (box) IRAN - Persia -- World Instruments: FTX-700 - A fragment of a rhapsodic mystic chant by the poet Araqi, superbly sung and oirnamented by Zabihi: FTX-785 -From the heritage of a complex, ancient civilization, this composition in the Abu-Ata mode is played on the tar (plucked lute) and the kemanche (bowed lute) by two males: FTX-787 - Fishers in Persian Gulf OCORA OCR-42 - Persian Classical Music rec by Charles Duvelle: OCR 57/ CASS-0106 (box) - CANTOMETRICS 90-914 A2/1 & 90-915 B2/10 - SHUSHA Persian Song: TANGENT TGS-110 1971

IRAQ -- World of Travel (sampler) ARGO SPA-212 - OCORA OCR-55/ CASS-0108 (box) - OCR-63 Oud: Munir Bashia (Instr)/ CASS-0151A (box) - OCR-79 Ensemble santur fid tamb drum & chant - CASS-0095 Baghdad TV cassette presented to Folktrax at Baden Baden Radio & TV Conference 1980

ISRAEL & PALESTINE - Hebrew, Bokaran Jewish singer. The severe sexual sanctions of the Mosaic code are typical of many cultures in the mideast, N. Africa, and the Mediterranean (in fact, in most of the ancient civilizations) and persist in contemporary society. Male solo. (Israel, A3)/ Palestine Hebrew. A fragment of cantelation of the "Kedusha." Note the free rhythm, melisma and the long phrases, as well as the narrow and very nasal vocal quality: FTX-784 - Hebrew. A cantor performing a prayer forYom Kippur. Male solo: FTX-785 - Kol Zion Lagolah Choral Society: RPL 21505 - "Calling the tune" #8 11/3/63 "Circassia" (Russian folk dance) - LP 26584 Raasche rec London 5/4/61 - ARGO ZFB 50 1971 Occidental & Oriental rec by Deben Bhattacharya - SPA 212 Sampler - B3/2 Palestine Hebrew cantelation "Kedusha" - HED-ARZI BAN-14492 Shalosh Re'galim - Ofra HAZA (f unacc) followed by superimposed disco beat version intro Colin Irwin: on "Acoustic Roots" 19/4/89: CASS-10-0716

ITALY - see also SARDINIA - SICILY - Tristan de Cunha "Italian waltzes": FTX-609 - accordion dance from Torino rec 1953 IFMC Festival/ RTR-0471-2: FTX-610 -Anthology of Italian Popular Music edited by Roberto Leydi: FTX- 617 & 618 - Children's Games: FTX-621 - World Instruments: 700 "Zampogna" bagpipe, jews harp, guitar, acc orch - Friuli choral tradition, a group of villagers, improvising one of a string of brief melodies called villanelli: FTX-781 #34 - Emilia. Villagers spontaneously producing a unified polyphonic effect: FTX-781 - Puglia. A lyric serenade sung by a worker accompanied by guitar:#29, A9)/ A Piedmont cattle herd, each cow with its own tuned bell, the leader swinging the biggest of them, sways up the path to summer pasture in the Alps/ Fishermen sing at the capstan, drawing in the great seatrap laden with tuna. Male chorus: FTX-783 - Genoa's contrapuntal longshoremen's choruses, "Tralaleros" employ three bass parts/ N Italy, Piedmont. Such small brass bands are an old tradition in this region of industry and industrialized farming. Mixed group/ A muleteer, engaged in transport in the rugged hills of Campania, sings a travelling song as he rides along, in the high, tense voice so common to the region/ Campania, where women's voices are as thin and hard as the long silver pins they wear in their hair: FTX-784 - Liguria. On moonlit nights the men gather on the bridge over the little mountain river and sing such medieval ballads as this one of the captain's daughter. Male group: FTX-789 - Complete collection of ALBATROS records edited by Roberto Leydi:: 8082/ / 8088/ 8120 - "Sardinia" ed by Diego Carpitella & others vols 1-3: 8150/ 8151/ 8152 - "Il Trallalero Genovese" 8164 - "Puglia e Lucania" 8191 - "Le Valli di Cuneo" 8203 - "Sicily - Work Songs" 8206 - "Bergamo e il suo teritorio: Lombardia" 8222/ 8223/ 8231/ 8237/ 8269/ 8341/ 8372/ 8381 - "Musiche e Canti popolari dell'Emilia" 8260/ 8278/ 8403 - Musica Contadina dell'Aretino" 8286/ 8287/ 8288 - "Canti di Liguria" 8309/ 8313 - "Il Lazio" 8348/ 8384 - "Marche" 8361/ 8382 "Alessandria Piemonte" 8390 - "Salento" 8405 - "Il Nigra Cantata Donna Lombarda" SdL/As/5 - "E per la Strada" DS/143/45/Cl - CASS 0016 is Joe Falinski's Instrumental Selection - CASS-0009-0025/ 0028/ 0138 (Sardinia)/ 0271 (bagpipes)/ 0052 (Dances, Instr & Religious Song)/ 0053 - ARGO ZFB-71 Sicily in Music & Song - - "Scano Boa" (modern folk group) rec Padova 1986 CALICANTE La TORRE X3 - Genoa: Canterini all'Opera: "Trallaleri e Canzoni": DEVEGA DL1017 2000 - RPL 23163 Tralalero/ Cass-0013 - LP 23587-9, 23841-(2) coll by Diego Carpitella incl Genoese Trallalero fishermen's choir - 24806-7 Sardinia - 26954 Pisa Baptistry demo - MONTE SANT'ANGELO 45 EP nd - OCORA 558-595 Sardinia rec by Michael Vuylsteke 1981/ CASS-0138 (box) - SUONI SU-5007 Accordion from Sardinia - LA CIAPA RUSA: on Radio 2 on 9/9/87: CASS#0403 - RITMEER on Radio 2 2/11/88: CASS-15-0739 incl Sardinian Song - Mario SALVI (melodeon): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 "Tarantella di Montemarato" - Pino MASULLO (local sounds, talk & gtr): CHIANO rec 9899 1999 (rec Lucerne, Switzerland) incl "Tarantella, Gallino" - Various Christmas recs: ROUNDER 1719 1998 - 7 cassettes & two books of folksongs recorded by ITALIA RANALDI contributed by Roberto Campo June 2001 -- 5 tracks rec by Alan Lomax 1954: ROUNDER-CD 1700 1997 - LIGURIA Balardo & Imperia rec by AL 1954: ROUNDER CD-1816 2002 - FF-4405 Film Sword Dance from Fenestrelle (Piemonte) in which the "Fool - Arlecchino " at the conclusion, stands on the raised crossed swords .

IVORY COAST -- rec by Michael Vuysteke 1969: OCORA OCR-48 /CASS-0115 (box) - Masque Dan rec Jugo Kemp 1965-7: OCR-52 /CASS- 0111 (box) - Le ZAGAZOUGOU (p-acc & 3-row diatonic) with percussion rec Abidjan 1993: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995


JAPAN -inc; OKINAWA - RYUKU - Koto solo & group with flute rec 1953 IFMC Festival: FTX-610 - World Instruments: Flute band & street procession with drums: FTX-700- Music of Ainu Two female singers with samshin/ Women singing a rice-planting song which voices the desire of a young woman for a new crimson dress - and a lover: FTX-781 - A Tokyo builders' work song for heavy lifting, as when the center post of a shrine is to be raised. Male group/ Ainu. Fisher-gatherers of N. Japan rejoicing over the bounty of a beached whale Mixed group/ Ainu, Mixed group: FTX-782 - Fishermen's song with flute accompaniment. An urban rendition of a charcoal burner's song. Male solo with flute (shakuhachi)/ Amami Island farmers and fishermen have retained much of the traditional lifeways of Old Japan. A song of mourning/ A raspy, rice-husking song saying: "Not a single grain should be wasted, for it takes 88 steps to make rice good to eat". Male solo and chorus: FTX-784 - Ainu. A paleo-Siberian aboriginal woman performs in the solo style that dominates Arctic Asian singing. (Kondo)/ A fisherman's song accompanied by shakuhachi (flute): FTX-785 - In this Zen style sound flows like a waterfall, cleansing the mind of thought, leading to meditation. Male group/ Zen. A Butsuden chant, the type to which Zen monks devote many of their waking hours/ The herring-fishery workers sing to celebrate a successful springtime catch, using rather long phrases and much embellishment. Male solo with flute (shakuhachi): FTX-786 - The ornamented long phrases of the shakuhachi are prelude to a song commenting on the loneliness of life/ A work song, mounting a long narrative, the Ryuku Archipego, whose culture still preserves the ways of old Japan. Female chorus with drum: FTX-787 - Kyushu geisha accompanied by zither, lute, flute, gong and drum sing about the experiences of a girl during the period of trial marriage - Folksongs of Ryuku, Okinawa & Japan - 0029 Tsugaru Folksongs sung by Unchika Nanta - COLUMBIA SL-214 incl Formosa Korea & Ryukus/ CASS-0049 - CROWN LW 4006 Temple or Processional Music - LYRICHORD LL-134 Kabuki Naganta Music (Orch) - LLST-7126 Gagahn Imperial Couert Music - LLST 7137 Noh Music - NONESUCH H-72025 Shakuhachi (CASS-0058 & Noh) - ORCHID OR-1 Yashikazu huamato - Shakuhachi rec Dartington Devon 1984- cass tapes from MORI - Competition Song celebrating Spring by a fisherman accomp by shakuhachi rec by Genjiro Masu for Japanese Music Institute, Tokyo: COLUMBIA World Library/ ROUNDER CD 1700 1997 "Esashi Oiwake"





KOREA -- FTX-700 World Instruments: "Kayakeum" (string instrum) with drum - True orchestral heterophony, between flute and shawm with instruments trailing each other: FTX-781/ A semi-professional orchestra a S.E. Korean traditional 'hymn to the god of the house site' on a flute, hourglass drum, and oboe: FTX-782 Korean classical An Ahk ('neat and orderly') music, composed in 1450 for ceremonial and state occasions, played on a range of instruments of wood, metal and stone: FTX-783 - COLUMBIA SL-214 Japan/ CASS 0049 - Exchange with Jae-won Chang.Chang Won, Shinbanpo 3-cha APT 24-403 Banpo 2-dong, Seocho-gu Seoul 137-042 South Korea Nov 2002: SRCD-3532 1999 (Ministry of Culture & Tourism Reg #22) - ene media co SCO-127-TAC 2001 SEULGIDOONG: "From the Evening Tide Till The Coming Down" - DRM-CD-1778 Jeong SooNyum HAEGUM: "Beatiful Things In Life" - SRCD-1439 Shon Bum Ju: "Flying Up To Heaven

LAOS - South East Asia -- FTX-700 World Instruments: Song accomp "khen" - The large, composite palace orchestra of the king with a dialogue between metalophone, oboe, flute and percussion: FTX-783 -Male solo with khene (mouth organ), a festival dance/ A male singing a festival dance song accompanied on the khene: FTX-784 - EMI HELP-1 History of Music B4 Song of Ngum bargeman/ khen "buzzing of bees"/ old dance/ Male solo with group: Love song

LAPLAND - FINLAND - NORWAY - SWEDEN - IFMC Yearbook 1973 p51 Article on singing style - These Finno-Ugric reindeer-herders compose "joiks", songs that briefly fix some place or incident, in a pattern of nonsense syllables, characterized by uneven phrasing and glottal delivery. This, the principal song type of the peoples of Siberia, seems to be the source of much Amer-indian song: FTX-783 - The Lapps share their nomadic hunter and reindeer-herding culture and their glottalised, irregularly phrased, metrically irregular style with all Northern Siberians/ A topical song concerning the revolt of Lapp religionists against the Norwegian church in which Lapps drove their knives straight into the hearts of their enemies as if they were slaughtering reindeer: FTX-786 - A Lapp male chants in the guttural-voiced, repetitive style, typical of Siberian nomads: FTX-788 - SWEDISH RADIO "Jojk" 13/4

LATVIA -- A radio orchestra playing a European fine art arrangement of a Latvian folk dance tune/ "Subate" dance by concert wind ensemble: FTX-782 #56 & FTX-783

LEBANON -- Druze tribe: chopping acc chant/ drumming/ flute solo/ double-pipe solo: RPL 24899

LEEWARD ISLANDS -- CANTOMETRICS 90-014 A3/5 St Bartholemy Lobster Fishermen's song

LESOTHO -- rec 1947 War Dance against Hitler with ululations: (RPL 11116-7)

LIBERIA -The Kpelle are cereal agriculturalists and their song (which shows clear Pygmy influence) is for cutting brush: FTX-781 - PRIVATE LP 3440 by Mrs M JACKSON-PARKER

LITHUANIA -- Kupsikis. An amateur chorus does a concert version of an old wedding song: FTX-782 #69 - The common East European ballad of the girl, advised by her lover to poison her too-possessive brother- from a peasant village. Female solo: FTX-785 - A sutartine (choral round), the oldest Lithuanian song form - akin stylistically to the hocketing songs of Georgia and the African Gatherers: FTX-786 - Lithuania is a Baltic enclave of ancient traditions where the oldest Aryan language is spoken and a contrapuntal style, like that of Georgia, is retained. Mixed group: FTX-788 - CASS-0131-2 (box) Folk Dances - Sanger's tape (Dartington student's music thesis): CASS 0133-6 (2 copies/ in box) - FOLKRAFT LP 35 dub on cassette/ RTR-0451 -

MADEIRA -- Grupo de Folklore e Etnografico da Boa Nova: BB9502 Funchal 1995

MALAGASI - (Madagascar) -- Mahafaly male bard (Arab influence) with lyre and sticks: FTX-784 - A healing song from a highly stratified culture. With a female soloist, gunshots, two overlapping choirs, men yodeling, hand clapping and much ornamentation: FTX-785 - A crowded African healing ceremony, thrilling Cushitic cadences of the female lead, responses by a woman's chorus, a male solo and male chorus overlapping in contrapuntal relationships, a gun fired off to drive away evil spirits: FTX-789 - History of Music Choir & "Valiha" (hair-cutting ceremony): EMI HLP-1 - Valiha tubular bamboo gtr & other unusual instruments: OCORA OCR-18 & 24 (S) / CASS- 0127 & 0129 (box) - GLOBESTYLE Cass dub - current trad music (1988) - cass of radio progr 1974 on "The Valiha" the National Musical Instrument (RPL 3014-7) - Chris Dabbs Kilalao Zezeet Groupe "Jon": CASS-0061 - GLOBESTYLE rec featuring "kora": Radio 2 on 9/9/87: CASS-0403 - Francois REGIS-GIZAVO (voc & musette accordion): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

MALAWI - (Nyasaland) -- Hugh Tracey Coll East Africa: COLUMBIA SL-213



MALLORCA -- COLUMBIA SL-216 rec by Alan Lomax incl Ibiza/ CASS-0051

MALTA & GOZO -- Maltese Operatic Choral Society (male section) rec 17/7/59: RPL LP 24956 (6 Carols) - Damian Webb's 1971 recordings of children's games and carnival bands: FTX-627



MELANESIA - ADMIRALTIES - NEW BRITAIN - NEW GUINEA - NEW IRELAND - PAPUA- SOLOMONS - Admiralties: Baluan women singmg in seconds, Bulgarian style, in a culture where women do half or more of the work that produces the staple food: FTX-781- Solomon Islands, Malaita. A modern ceremonial panpipe orchestra - six instruments - organized in pairs, one playing 1, 3, 5, 7, the other - 2, 4, 6, 8 - in three-part polyphony, each part doubled at the octave/ Yambon. A seven-man garamut (slit drum orchestra) performs tatoos/ Admiralties, Usiai. Like other Melanesians, these were occasional cannibals, perhaps because of the relative scarcity of available protein in their diet/ Admiralties, Manus, Usiai. Three old men in a sing-song of wordless melodies, all by known song-makers and all harmonized/ S. Papua, Fuyege. Sweet, plaintive vocal style/ S. Papua, Tawade. A mountain tribe of great singers and dancers with the reputation as fierce warriors. Male group: FTX-783 - Admiralties, Manus. This sea-going, fishing and trading community was masculine in orientation and the position of women was low. Here a Manus woman sings a snatch of a lullaby/ S. Papua, Kuni. Low volume, parallel chords and gliss are distinctive features of this musical enclave, which may be pre-Melanesian. Mixed group/ E. Papua, Orokaiva. Male chorus, singing repetitiously in large intervals: FTX-785 - Solomon Is. Buin Area. The songs in this pig-and- root zone are often polyphonic like this one for the preparation of a feast. Mixed group/ Torres Straits, Sabai Island. These once fierce fishing and gardening people guarded the island bridge between S. New Guinea and Australia. The musical style is clearly Papuan, rather than Australian, but the musical organisation, in which the parts move from unison into fifths, triads and parallel octaves, rather resembles the drone polyphonies of Polynesia. Seven men with drums/ - E. Papua, Mt. Yule. A Gerebi woman sings a plaintive love-magic song about watching an insect crawl up a blade of grass. If the insect stays to the end of the song, the magic will work: FTX-787 / Admiralties, Manus. A fishing, trading people, most of whose songs are laments, this one concerning an inter-village battle. Male duet/ Admiralties Baluan Island. Three women performing in harmony amazingly close to Balkan examples/ Admiralties. Usiai sing in their habitual, plaintive, backwoods way about an orphaned child: FTX-788 - The Usiai tropical gardeners live in the hills back of the coastal Manus, whom Margaret Mead studied. The subdued vocalizing and the harmonizing are typical. Four young men/ New Hebrides, Tanna Island. A great throng of men, women and children of Yokananon Village in the Kalbu dance, which celebrates the completion of yam planting, wheel round in a great stamping, clapping cluster: FTX-789 - New Hebrides: RPL 30147 Land diving songs & slit gong with chant (not in Lib) - Musique de Guadecanal (Main Island) rec by Hugo Zemp: OCORA OCR-74 1970/ CASS-0147 (box)

MEXICO: Central America -- FTX-700 World Instruments: "Jaranito" (string instrum) & "Marimba" (xylophone) - Pueblo Taos. Tightly organized unison singing. Mixed group with drum: FTX-781 - Oaxaca, Mixtec, a male soloist accompanies himself on a three-string tortoise-shell guitar/ C. America, Guna, Araquia. Cuna culture, a link between Mayan and Andean upland traditions, ceremonies of female initiation where long, mythological epics and panpipe and horn music play a central part. Here six men dance in a circle, blowing long, plain bamboo pipes, with two panpipe players on the sidelines/ Morelos. Tlayacapan town band of 18 men (trumpets, trombones, saxophones, bass fiddles, drum, cymbals) blast out the carnival music for the masked, transvestite male 'chinelos' dancers/ Chiapas, Mayan music for a Catholic festival diffusely orchestrated with trumpets, whistle, and drums in a style frequently found in Nuclear America and which we judge to be pre-Columbian: FTX-783 - North Mexico. A man performing the Deer Dance, which links these hunters to their most important game; accompanied on a notched scraper, sticks and water drum: FTX-785 - Jalisco. The folk oboe, Chirimia, of Spanish origin) and drum announce the beginning of Holy Week: FTX-787 - Michoacan, Zamora. A mananitas, or morning serenade, sung by two village girls: FTX-788 - San Luis Potosi. A Huastecan son (dancing song) typical of the enormous and brilliant genres of Mexican semi-professional, folk-popular music. Two males with violin, bass guitar and tenor guitar: FTX-789 - INBA [1971] INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE BELLAS ARTES Campeche 1973 - recs by Henrietta Yurchenco 1944-6: LIB OF CONGRESS L5 Childrens Games & 19 Folk Music - NONESUCH H-7-11 Michoacan (2tr) - OCORA OCR-73/ CASS-0148 (box) - cass dub of S American commercial 78rpm discs loaned by Kitty Turner: Mariachi RTR- 0473 - CASS-0092 dub of field recs 12/5/77 by Jean Rad Hellmer

MICRONESIA - Palau, Western Carolines. A song for entertainment at old-style gatherings. Female solo: FTX-785 - Palau. A complementary and cohesive culture devoted to fishing and horticulture. A female leader chants a theme that is repeated and then elaborated by others. Drone polyphony comparable to Balkan examples. Three females: FTX-788

MIDDLE EAST - see AFGHANISTAN - BAHRAIN - EGYPT - GREECE - IRAN - IRAQ - ISLAM - ISRAEL - LEBANON - PALESTINE - SYRIA - TURKEY -- ARGO ZFB-42 Music - ZFB-54 Religious (Christian & Islanic) - ZFB-91 Dervishes - FOLKWAYS FR-8943 (Dervishes) Islamic Liturgy rec JL London - TANGENT TGS-131-5 Human Voice/ Lutes/ Strings/ Flutes & trumpets/ Reeds & Bagpipes


MONGOLIA - see also SIBERIA - Professional folk musicians perform a modern song. Female group with yetah (zither): FTX-783 - GLOBAL ARTS GA-! CASS-0066 Music & song of M rec live by Carole Pegg at Cambridge Univ Arts Studies Unit 5/8/88 - HUNGARIAN NEPRAIZI ETHNO MUSEUM [1966] Fiddle - TANGENT TGS-126 Vocal Music rec Jean Jenkins

MORAVIA -- "Moravian Folk Songs and Dances": FTX-643

MOROCCO - Sephardic song: FTX-785 - Ouzazarte. A Gran Houache performed in the courtyard of the pasha's palace south of the high Atlas Mountains at the edge of the Sahara. Two rows of women weave a stately giant circle round a cluster of seated male drummers who respond with thrilling calls. The ancient Berber pattern is democratic, egalitarian and complementary. Female group and male group with drums: FTX-789 - recs by Paul Bowles 1959: Lib of Congress L-63-64 - CASS-0097 JAJOUKA Royal Court performers of High Atlas with tuned drums






NEW GUINEA - INDONESIA - MELANESIA - Sepik. The string of the musical mouth bow is plucked and the overtones of these notes are amplified by changes in the oral cavity near which one tip of the bow is held/ Sepik River - Siassi Islands. A funeral lament performed at the grave or death feast of an elder. Male solo/ Butala area. After an old woman had died, her son sang this song: FTX-784 - Male solo with hourglass drum - Vanimo. A unison male chorus of the Northern Coast, accompanied on the typical hour-glass drums, sounds its strength in a war song. Small-scale wars over land, ended after a couple of skirmishes, were endemic in these root and pig-raising economies. Unison male group with hourglass drums: FTX-786 - Sepik River, Iatmul. One side of a ceremonial duet (tsgai) , a celebration of a set of related names. Male solo with hourglass drum - COLUMBIA SL-208 F/M of Eastern New Guinea (CASS 0045) - DVD 2003 (colour & b/w) by John Bishop & Harold Prins "Oh what a blow that phantom gave me" interview with Edmund Carpenter 1998 with 1969-70 footage of Sepik River tribal initiation etc


NEW ZEALAND -- Maori. A lament of forcibly separated lovers, sung in wide-voiced polyphony by a mixed choir from this ramage-grouped, horticultural society: FTX-782 - A large mixed chorus sings an ancient lament: FTX-783 - The Maori, in the general fashion of the Polynesians, preserved their genealogies (so important to them in determining their social positions) in lengthy chanted poems, like this lament for the great chiefs of the past: FTX-784 - Maori. Puhiwahine, a Maori poetess composed this song in her youth when she was forcibly separated from her lover. They had grown old before they met again and they wept as Puhiwahine sang this waita. Mixed group: FTX-789 - CASS 0067 rec Alys Curtis June 1980: Field rec of old performers & 3 songs rec Dartington College of Arts incl version "Little Brown Jug" - Group at Sidmouth Festival: RPL Radio 2 10/8/88: CASS-90-0549 incl "Haka"

NIGER & NIGERIA -- Jos Plateau, Anaguta. The interlocked, hocketing Pygmy-like style of this flute orchestra comes from a small, complementary tribe living in a zone once occupied by Pygmies, and probably represents an absorption of Pygmy style: FTX-781 - Yoruba Theatre: ASSOCIATED RECORDINGS COMPANY ARC0-1062 "OBALUAYE" - Drum Beats (Northern Group: (RPL LP 25825) - Griots: OCORA OCR-20 / CASS-0128 (box) - Tuareg & Bororo: OCR 29 / CASS-0124 (box)- Nomads Tuareg & Bororo: OCORA OCR-29 - Ife Univ Plateau: OCR-82 1972 / CASS 0141 (box) - Prince Nico & Rocafill Jazz: WARNER WEA-KO-8045 - Intro to Africa: WOMAD TB-2- J.K.DAIRO MBE (melodeon) with percussion rec 1971: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

NORTH CAROLINA - Steve MEEKINS (fid) rec by Frank & Anne Warner, Kitty Hawk, N C 1941: FTX-927

NORWAY: -- see also LAPLAND - Willie HUNTER (fid) rec by Pat Shaw, Shetland 1952: FTX-068 "Norwegian Waltz"- CAS 0032 Hardanger fiddle/ 0062-3/ FTX-368 - rec 1953 IFMC Festival: FTX-610 "Soldier's Joy" tune - World Instruments: FTX-700 - A sentimental song about the beauties of nature in Sete-dale Valley. Male solo: FTX-781 - Trained European vocalists lady ballad singer: FTX-783 - A mountain woman remembers one of the calls (Kulokk) she employed to manage cattle in her young days as milk-maid/ A Valkyrie voice from the world of Nordic princesses and of valiant dairymaids who guarded the cattle while the Vikings plundered Europe: FTX-784 - Telemark. A fragment of an epic song about the hero, Roland, whose trumpet blasts 'burst walls as far away as nine day's travel.' Female solo/ When the men were away fishing or raiding, Norwegian dairymaids used such calls in herding the cattle. Female solo: FTX-785 - A cattle-call (kulokk) such as the dairymaids of the Norwegian hills employed for centuries to manage their herds. Cattle pastoralism enriched this zone of Europe before it knew intensive plough agriculture; it was customary here to sing to the cattle. Thus the cattle songs and calls of the American West are an ancient West European patrimony/ A cattle-herding song from the Norwegian mountains, where herding preceded field agriculture, as in much of W. Europe. Male solo/ Mouth music for dancing, a N.W. European trait with Siberian connections. (See LAPP songs): FTX-788 - 2'17" COMPLEX MELODIC FORMS (16B) - CAPRICE 1153 Hardanger fid & piano rec by Daliot - RTR-0329 & 0449 - FREE REED FFR-005 TROTTO Hardanger "Fanitullen" - LARRIKIN LRF-034 1977 Percy Grainger's piano roll of Norwegian Folksong (Greig) - RCA FEP-45 & FLP-11 Telemark hardanger rec Myleburst - FLP-18 Frondelag - FLP-19 Old folk instrum incl Finnish Kantele - LPNE-2 Mountain & Valley - TALENT 2021 1977 Sven Nyhus Quartet - TOPIC 12-TS-351 f/m of N rec Radio: Myklebust/ Daliot/ CASS#0197 - TOPIC 12-TS-429 "Ringing Strings" (Daliot #2 & Shetland) - TRIOLA TNLP-42 Telemark hardanger - Bergen Group at EBU Radio Festival in Denmark intro by Cyril Tawney 5"RTR-1208/ CASS-0341 incl Jews Harp - EBU Fest in Finland: Springleik Radio 2: 5/4/83: CASS-0410 - Magnus MANNHEIM (Hardanger fid) rec by Tom Anderson 1964 :CASS-0436


OKINAWA -- A traditional lullaby performed as an art song.
Male solo with sanshin (three-string lute): FTX-788





PANAMA -- RTR 1198 3" reel tape 7" (both sides) Canal Zone & Interior: Social Dances, Corpus Christi, 5 str-fid, flute & drum with shouts during fiesta - sent by Mrs Cheville to Maud Karpeles c. 1960s

PAPUA -- BLACK BROTHERS dub of cassette from Port Moresby New Guinea CASS-0070 & 0071 - Australia & New Guinea: COLUMBIA SL-208 - Indonesia: COLUMBIA SL-210


PERU -- - Pipe & drum band "Charango" orch & Titiaca Indian dance with drums: FTX-700 - Quechua: FTX-781 - A mestizo dance tune for flute and drum/ Junin, Santiago. Violin, trumpet and drum spur on the work of the harvest/ Junin. The lively orchestral traditions of the Andes are reminders of Peru's imperial past. Here, it is the ambiance, the ensemble, which is clearly native, even though the musical material is Hispanic: FTX-783 - Inca Panpipe Ensemble: NONESUCH H7-11 -Pancartambo Indiens Q'eros: OCORA OCR-30/ CASS-0124 (box) - Cass dub of Kitty Turner's S American comm 78 rpm discs -Tany MEDINA & LOS MOROCHOS harp solos CASS-0090 (dub of disc) LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia: - BARCLAY 820-054/ CASS-0091


POLAND -- - World Instruments: FTX-700 - A modern village chorus performing an old comic ballad about farm animals. Mixed group/ A typical village orchestra of fiddles, bass and clarinet, playing a figure dance as the singer calls out: "Play faster, I'm not crippled.': FTX-785 - Polish Country Dance Band: RPL LP 26219 "Calling the tune #6" 25/2/63 "Flisak" - Feliks DZIERZANOWSKI & his Polish Folk Band: POLSKIE NAGRANIA XL 0746 1971 - MUZA SX-1125/6 1976 Double LP of Polish Folk Music/ CASS-0100 - DUBROWAS Polish Folk Group based in London 6/86 - DUBROVA FAMILY of S London (3m 3/w) Radio 2: 7/10/87: CASS-0401

POLYNESIA - COOK ISLANDS - HAWAII - SAMOA - TAHITI - TONGA -- Cook Islanders perform choreographed song dances in forceful, wide-voiced style. Male group and female group: FTX-781 - Tahiti, where a permissive, cohesive, complementary, but aristocratic society favoured clear-voiced, well-blended, polyphonic choirs singing with precise enunciation: FTX-784 - West Polynesia, Puka-Puka. In Polynesia well-rehearsed and choreographed troupes of mixed dancers perform on feast days and often tour near-by islands. On moonlit nights the young people perform similar dancing songs on the beach. These overlapping choruses, which are sung with great energy and cohesion and often in polyphony. Male and female group: FTX-789 - Radio progr "Polynesian Art of Dance" 12/2/79 Dr Adrienne Kepler of Bishop Museum Honolulu & talk about Hawaii & Easter Island by Grant McCall NSW: CASS 0093 - Popular Songs of Samoa rec 1949 (RPL 13556) CASS-0093 - Radio progr 12/2/79 4 songs from Samoa performed with English announcements/ RTR-0446-7

PORTUGAL - see also MADEIRA -- Children's games: FTX-623 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - S. Portugal, Algarve. A calendrical song, ' Janeiras' or year-end carol for January lst. Male solo/ Christmas carol. Mixed group: FTX-785 - TROUTBECK 121-6 (3) Spanish & Portuguese Synagogue London - WOMAD TB-3 1982 Pedro Candera CANBRAL gtr group

PUERTO RICO - recs by Richard A Waterman 1946: LIB of CONGRESS AFS L-18

RAJASTHAN -- OCORA OCR-47 Music from Rajasthan/ CASS 0116 (box) - OCR-81 Professional f/ musicians of Rajasthan/ CASS- 0142 (box)

ROMANIA -- Douglas KENNEDY talks about the Calusari Morris: FTX-481 - Euro-gypsies: FTX-608 - recs presented to Dr Maud Karpeles/ CASS-0103-4/ FTX-631 - FTX-634 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - Film of Village Festivals with Calusari (Morris dancers) made in 1938: FF-4404 - Wallachia. Dance tune played on the bagpipe by shepherds: FTX-781 Clui peasant girls, carrying a harvest wreath of wheat that symbolizes the sun, sing the harvest round the village/ Bucharest State folk ensemble accompanying a great panpipe player in the favorite gypsy showpiece that describes the soaring, singing lark. Panpipe with violin and cymbalom accompaniment: FTX-783 - Transylvania. A lament for a dead child is sung tenderly as if it were a lullaby. Female solo: FTX-784 - Crisana. A woman improvises a lament upon the death of her brothers using a standard formula but adding new verses. Female solo/ Cluj. A delicately embellished appeal to the emperor to stop his wars and his needless slaughter of the young men. Female solo: FTX-787 - Muntenia. A ritual song for a big three-day weddlng, accompanied by a gypsy-style orchestra from the homeland of the doina in the Danubian plain - for millennia, the entry-way for Oriental culture into Europe: FTX-788 - Tuvin. The singer constricts his throat, retracts his tongue producing a low growling note, while shaping the higher pitched overtone notes, as he would do in playing a jaw's harp. Found as far west as the Bashkirs, this style is most frequent among the Mongols, especially the Tuvins, a little known group of hunters and pastoralists who live in the high country between the Altai and Sayan Mountains. Male solo: FTX-789 - World of Travel sampler ARGO ZFB 41 & SPA 212 - Archive of Folklore Inst Bucharest RPL LP 23243-5 - Popular vocals & orchestrals incl pan-pipes: DECCA Eclipse ECM-ECS 2031 1963 - Anthology presented to Maud Karpeles 2/8/62: - ELECTROCORD EPD 1007 orchestral: 1015/6/7 12/CASS 0102-3" - The True Tradition of Transylvania rec Vuylsteke: OCORA 558-596 1974-9 / CASS-0137 (box) - Folk music in Transylvania by Simon Broughton on Radio 4 20/12/89 CASS-0033 - Radio 2 progr by Harold Dennis-Jones 14/2/79 CASS- 0065 - Transylvania CASS-0137 - 5"RTR- 0789/ CASS-1355 copy of Romanian dances - "Doina" by Mari LATARETU & orcherstra rec by Tiberiu Alexandru, Lelesti, Turgu Jiu, Oltenia for The Archive of the Folklore Institute, Bucharest: COLUMBIA World Library ROUNDER 1759 2001/ ROUNDER CD 1700 1997 "Ma UitaI Spre Rasarit" (Looking towards the rising sun) - Midwinter Carol, Hunedoara: ROUNDER 1719 1998 - DVD of Calusari 1938 (see folkfilms)

RUSS-ASIA including - MONGOLIA - SIBERIA - RUSSIA - UKRAINE - see also -ARMENIA - AZERBAIJAN - GEORGIA - Dagestan (Female and male choirs, Georgia cannonic, contrapuntal polyphony with a yodeled leader's part/ Kazakhstan (a song in the bardic style, typical of Old High Culture)/ Central Russia (A Molokan church Sunday School, singing a Protestant hymn)/ State Siberian Folk Choir singing an arranged peasant ditty : FTX-781 - Karelia: A choir of peasant girls from the northern wooded province near Finland/ Bowed lutes play in a traditional intertwining style/ A rozhok (cornet) ensemble from Great Russia, playing a traditional "That"/ Georgia in the Caucasus preserve this modern survival of a primeval, interlocked style of counterpoint, once widely known in East Europe: FTX-782 - An art song about Stenka Razin, the peasant revolutionary, performed by the Soviet Army male ensemble with string orchestra accompaniment/ An operatic solo from Prince Igor performed by Chaliapin with a complex orchestra accompaniment/ One of the modern state balalaika orchestras swirls through a traditional Russian folk dance. Strings/ Turkestan. A flute and drum piece/ Moscow. The choirs in the Bolshoi Orchestra slide over each other in jazz arrangements and contemporary European orchestration, String and wind sections of the symphony orchestra/ Bashkir. A flute solo in free-rhythm from a Tatar people who live in their own autonomous region in the Urals: FTX-783 - A Mongolian singer matching the top notes of a bowed lute/ A Cossack ballad from the Ukraine, performed by a trained baritone with bandura (stringed instrument) accompaniment/ Georgia. The high, mountain-locked valleys of the Caucasus guard many traces of an-cient cultures, among them a true virtuosity in yodeling, often combined with magnificent contrapuntal choralizing, whose structure is like that of the African pygmies. Male group/ Kalmyk. This combination of wide voices, big leaps, big range, with florid ornamentation is peculiar to the zone of steppes and herding from Mongolia to the Balkans: FTX-784 - Mongolia, Darhat, a culture with the layered, patriarchal, male-dominated pattern of many large-scale pastoral states/ Mongolia. Dorzhdagva, a famous singer with a three-octave range, pours out strings of glottalized nonsense syllables in a heightening of Arctic Asian style/ The Kalmyk were mounted warriors and cattle herders of the steppes west of the Volga, a land where such heroic songs once flourished. Male solo/ A Mongolian saga singer accompanying himself on the bowed lute, rhapsodising about the Gobi Desert. Male solo/ The Kalmyk lived as sizeable bands of semi-nomadic cattle herders, feudally organized under khans Male solo: FTX-785 - Buryat Mongols, descendants of the riders of Ghengis Khan, employ an ornamented bardic style, as in this solo drinking song with lute accompaniment/ The Kazakhs were formerly nomadic pastoralists whose extended family clan confederacies (hordes) occupied a vast territory and whose bards performed epics and engaged in battles of sung poetry to lute accompaniment: FTX-786 - Ukraine. A practiced rural choir in a traditional Russian folk pattern of wide-voice, well-blended polyphony, and irregular meter/ Uzbek. These modern descendants of Turco-Mongol pastoralists still have many such highly ornamented epic songs to remind them of their imperial ancestors who conquered the Central Asian steppes. Male solo with tar (lute): FTX-787 - Russia. Turkmen, dwelling east of the Caspian, here perform so that the voices of singer and bowed lute soar like eagles over the steppes. Male solo/ Mongolia. East Mountain Buryat, a nomadic herding culture with the soaring, gliding, embellished, tremulous style typical of this zone. Male solo/ Tadjikistan. This state-supported national ensemble could be a modern embodiment of the ancient Iranian civilisation of the Middle East. Female solo and chorus with strings/ N.C. Russia, Volgoda Region. A woman keens a ritual lament for her dead father in a style with parallels all over Europe/ C. Asia, Buryat Mongol art song, with the wide leaps and big range frequent in Central Asia. Female solo with lute accompaniment: FTX-788 - Turkmen. Tense-throated Asian virtuoso uses high register, glissandi, glottal sobs and strong dynamics to enhance a bardic declamatory style, found all over the Middle East and Central Asia. Male solo with plucked lute (dutar) and bowed lute (gidchak) - South Russia. A wedding dance sung in the open-air style said to have originated when the original Russian inhabitants came back from the North to reoccupy lands that had been long held bythe Tartars. Female chorus: FTX-789 - Urals State Choir rec by PK: RTR-0474-6/ CASS-60-0059 - Church Bells of Rostov MELODIYA 15836 - F/S rec Hungary July 1975 PRIVATE TATAR - "Song of Homeland" WOMAD TB-3 1982 - "Song of Homeland" with dulc: WOMAD TB-3 1982 - Folk quartet from St Petersburg on their 1991 tour: cassette from Russell Needham - comp cassette from Marina Fonina St Petersburg 1992 ZABAVA 1991 - RUSS Male Choir: Liturgical Hymns from St Petersburg: CASS-1077 - ZABAVA (group from St Petersburg) rec by Jonathon Coudrille, Glastonbury & Bath 1991 CASS-1078 - Dubs by Marina & Vladimir Fonina of 1980s recs, St Petersburg Nov 1992 CASS 90-1079 -00 --- Recs outside Russia: THE PENNYWHISTLERS: NONESUCH H-72007 1971 & 72024 - Roger NICHOLSON (dulc) & Jake WALTON (gtr): ARGO ZDA-204 1974 "Bright shines the moon" (Balalaika tune) - Nic JONES: FOLKSOUND FS-100 1974 "Warlike Lads of Russia" - Hank WANGFORD: Radio progr 26/1/86 "Why Gengis Khan was a cowboy too" CASS-0480 mainly from Eastern Europe - RUS Black Sea area Folk Group CASS-1289 gift 1993 - Viacheslav TARAN (bayan accordion) rec by Terem Centre finalists St Petersburg, 1995: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - KARAVAI Quartet of Perm with balalaika & domra: Catalyst CATA-CD-2 1998 (rec in Denmark) "Babushka Matryona"Track 13 has ethnic field recording from Urals taken up by group





SARDINIA-- ALBATROSS VPA 8150-2 (3 vols) (VPA 8152 also on cassette) - FTX-622 Children's games - "Historic Collection Series": FTX-626/ SAYDISC SDL 426 Traditional Songs and Dances of Sardinia - World Instruments: FTX-700 - N. Sardinian mountain shepherds; Male solo with male group/ Mountain shepherds sing a bandit dance. Male group: FTX-781 - Male chorus. (Lomax #29 B8): FTX-783 - N. Sardinia, where the village shepherds and outlaws preserve an ancient polyphonic tradition, resembling those of Genoa and Georgia, and a brassy vocal delivery. Male solo with male group: FTX-784 - OCORA 558-595 1981 rec Vuylsteke/ CASS-0138 (box) - SUONI SU-5007 "organetto" rec by Diego Carpitella



SICILY -- Trapani salt porters continue an ancient tradition of rhyming about the number of bags they have carried, in wordy, precise, loud and forceful, narrow-voiced, raspy-nasal style, using wide intervals and free rhythm: FTX-781- A sulphur miner's song, expressing the Sicilians eternal torment over love and over the misery of life in a land which suffered under oppressive rulers for 2000 years. Male solo with jaw's harp: FTX-785 - Work Songs: ALBATROSS VPA-8206 - "Tarantella" & Lullaby: ARGO SPA-212 - "Sicily in Music & Song" rec by Jim McNeish: ARGO ZFB-71 1965 - Robin HALL & Jimmie McGREGOR BELTONA SEP-85 1960 (45 EP) "The Banks of Sicily" (comp by Hamish Henderson) - Dances: "Tarantelle" & Work Song: RPL 23211-3 - Ocarina, clarinet & gtr/ Sulphur miners Work Songs: RPL 27041-4 - Friction drum & jaws harp - Shepherd flute bells & sheep: RPL 27570 - Funeral March by Brass Band: (RPL 30425) (Lomax recs) - "La Baronessa di Carini" prod by Anna Chairetakis, New York: GLOBAL GVM-676-7 (2 vol set) - Ewan McCOLL TOPIC 12-T-130 1958 "Banks of Sicily"



SOUTH AFRICA -- Shona boy singing to his mbira: FTX-781 - WOMAD TB 2 Intro to Africa: Unknown Soweto musicians - 3 tracks of Sotho concertina, accordion & Zulu concertina (Gallo): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995


SPAIN - see also BASQUE COUNTRY - BALEARICS - CATALONIA - Oboe & side-drum, guitars, castanets: FTX-700 - Asturias (The danza prima, early danced ballad where the whole community joins hands and dances in procession through the streets singing of valorous deeds of the Moorish wars. Female leader with mixed group)/ Castile rendition of an old romance (ballad) about the daughter of the emperor of Rome. Male and female solos - Asturias, whose miners, farmers and fishermen compose and sing superb traditional "asturianadas", a style that dates back to the time when Asturias was the seat of Spain's kings: FTX-783 / A Galician woman beats her flax while singing a snatch of a Spanish romance ballad/ A Santander mountain dance, lustily sung by young women at the fiesta for the patron saint of their village. Female group with tambourine, almirez (mortar and pestle) accompaniment: FTX-781 - N.W. Spain, Galicia. A song to St. Andre who was such a local patriot he would not cross the river to leave this permissive complementary village. Mixed group/ Judeo-Spanish "Ladino" love song with lute, flute and drum. (Also on FTX-783): FTX-782 / S. Spain. A Murician parrando (gay dance) sung with instrumental voicewith guitar and clappmg, from an area where Moorish culture once flourished - Valencia. The wind interlude (trumpet, clarinet and trombone) between the sung strophes of the virtuoso "U y dos" genre/ - A Castilian farmer sings to spur on his mules, as they move round and round on the threshing floor, treading out the grain/ Galicia. Here a muleteer sends his voice through the hills as he travels, calling out for custom and love: FTX-784 - Asturias, where the Spanish kings mounted their wars against the Moors and where hundreds of such brief and exquisitely ornamented songs were created. Male solo/ Castile. In this lullaby the mother asks the child to go gently to sleep, like a rose-bud on a rosebush. Female solo/ Estremadura, where. as in Asturias, N. Italy and French Canada ballads are normally performed in chorus. Four village girls/ Galicia has a Celtic musical culture with bagpiping, tunes like jigs, and cohesive choruses/ Santander. In a pastoral village high in the Pyrenees, shepherd girls sing one of the love songs traditional on the local saint's day. Female group: FTX-785 - La Mancha. A petition to the Virgin for rain. Female solo/ Estremaduran shepherd villages preserve many old romances (ballads). This one is about the amorous adventures of Don Carlos, son of Phillip II. Female group: FTX-786 - Seville. As the gigantic Easter procession pauses to listen, a famous flamenco singer using a high-pitched, narrow, embellished style, launches a saeta (an arrow of song) in honour of the Virgin's grief. Female solo/ Galicia, where plaintive airs, improvised harmonies, bagpipes and Celtic love of country come together in such 'ay-la-la's'. The text says: 'when pipes sound, my heart flows out with love for my country- for in the whole world there is no land like ours...' - Andalucia: Female group/, where ordinary day-laborers, drinking with their friends in a bar, improvise such tricky and demanding flamenco songs, "as long as the wine lasts!". Male, beating time on table top/ Leon. A female chorus singing in honor of the bride at an old-fashioned three-day wedding. Female group/ Valencia. A Christmas carol (aguinaldo) from the irrigated gardens of this ancient kingdom of the Romans and the Moors. Four males with trombone, clarinet and guitar: FTX-787 - Castile. The Song of the Twelve (a Spanish form of an ancient Hebrew religious song) is here performed to the accompaniment of the Moorish friction drum, as a Castilian Christmas carol/ N. Spain, Santander. Girls of a shepherd village, accompanied by castanets and tambourine, sing a carol of the shepherds on the way to Bethlehem/ Aragon. A schooled jota, recorded at a jota concert, by a trained jota singer from the jota school in jota-mad Zaragossa/ Castile. One of the myriad charming Spanish Christmas carols ( villancicos). is one tells how black Balthasar found the Holy Child. Female solo: FTX-788 - Aragon & Valencia: ROUNDER 1762 2001 - Portrait of Andalucia: ARGO ZFB-45 - Sampler: ARGO SPA-212 - recs by Alan Lomax incl Mallorca & Ibiza: COLUMBIA SL-216 - Trotto: FOREST TRACKS FT-6004 "The Old Spagnoletta" - Antonio MASQUERA (bagpipes & percussion): SMITHSONIAN Music from the Festival of American Folklife - Spanish & Portuguese Synagogue London: TROUTBECK 121-6 (3) - El Nino di ALMADEO: WOMAD TB-3 1982 (Flamenco) - RTR-0470 - EBU Radio Festival in Denmark intro by Cyril Tawney 5"RTR#1208/ CASS#0341 - CANTE FLAMENCO rec live in Juerga & Concert in Andalucia - NIMBUS NI-5251 CD-1165 - CANTE GITANO Gypsy Flamenco from Andalucia NIMBUS NI-5168 CD-1166 - 4 sample tracks rec by Alan Lomax in 1952: ROUNDER CD 1700 1997 - Various Christmas recs: ROUNDER 1719 1998 - Galicia: ROUNDER CD-1761 2001

SRI LANKA - Ceylon -- A Tamil rural song performed with notable precision of enunciation by a male soloist and male group with vani (bamboo flute), violin and mirdam (drum)/ Madras-Tamil religious song to Vishnu, with the second singer a respectful step behind the lead. Two males with tambura (strings) and a reed drone: FTX-781 - S.India, Madras. A former high-court judge, turned temple singer, is respectfully trailed through a Tamil devotional song by his acolyte. Two males with a drone: FTX-782 - Tamil. Devotional raga. Male solo: FTX-786 - A Tamil raga in honor of Shiva, one of the many large,composed forms which have emerged in urban civilizations. Male solo with sitar/ A devotional raga developing a melodic theme: FTX-787 - Surya SENA spoken intros to songs in English: DSS-001


SUMATRA - (RPL 35341 not in Lib) -- Senang Beru GINTIG & Syaiful Amri NASUTION (p-acc) with vocal & percussion rec Medan, N.Sumatra (from SMITHSONIAN): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

SWEDEN: - see also LAPLAND -- Clog-fid rec 1953 IFMC Festival: FTX-610 - World Instrum: pastoral bark horns: FTX-700 - Part of a courtly romantic ballad in the ancient couplet-plus-refrain, solo-chorus style: FTX-787 - Skansen Orchestre CUPOL CLP - Jazz & Folklore rec by Matts Arnberg DUX DPL-705 /CASS- 0055 Fid duet from Dalarna NONESUCH H-7-11 - Herding from Dalarna (birch, cow's & ram's horns) RADIO JANST (SWEDISH RADIO) RD-559-560 (78rpm) - Lapp "Yoiks" RELP-1029 Mediaeval Ballads/ Child Ballads in Swedish: RELP 5003-6/ CASS-45-0594 - Ancient Pastoral music RELP 5017 - Players from Halsingland SONET SLP-18 - Swedish Radio tape of "Pastoral Music" with sounds of birds & cattle: Radio 2 on 9/9/87: CASS-0403 - Christy O LEARY & THE BOYS OF THE LOUGH: LOUGH-CD-006 1994 Ballad: "Sankt Staffan han Rider" (St Stephenn was riding) bef "Chistmas day in the morning" (Shetland from Stickle) & "Trettondagsmarchen" (Walking tune) - Lars HOLLMER (p-acc/ "khen" mouth organ from Laos): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

SWITZERLAND: - Alphorn & yodelling with dancers rec 1953 IFMC Festival: FTX-610 - Evelyn Burgi (folksinger) Yodelling Song at London Ceilidhe Club 1957: FTX-268 - "Telefon" by Group called "Mixture" (inc Jazz) rec at EBU Festival in Denmark Radio 2: 13/1/88: CASS-0422 - Appenzell, Muota Valley, Ticino & Carnival at Basle on Radio 3: 20/12/89: CASS-0031

SYRIA (RPL 26257)

TAHITI - Society Islands, Polynesia -- EMI HLP-1 History of Music B6: (a) Primitive Song (b) Modern dance - CASS 0093 radio talk by Dr Adrienne Kepler 12/2/79 on Polynesian Dance - poetry is basis - dancer was a storyteller

TANZANIA -- Hugh Tracey Coll East Africa COLUMBIA SL-213 / CASS 0048 - Remmy ONGALA (Dares-Salaam) & drum music WOMAD 002 - Jean Jenkins radio 3 1974 - 3"RTR-1194 - Chant drum & ankle bells rec Barrie Juniper 2/8/58 Dance for God of the mountain & Male singer accomp gombo (monochord) rec Kalya 29/9/58: Song in praise of Hubi-hubi: RPL LP 27257

THAILAND - Lua. Boys from a matrilocal and complementary culture sing softly outside a hut where their sweethearts sleep. Male group: FTX-783 -A singer, trained in refined embellishment, performs a song of the "type to soothe tired kings", accompanied by an orchestra of 2-string violins, sitar (chakay), flageolet, oboe and tiny cymbal (ching)/ Northeast. A country girl from this irrigation culture sings in a tense voice thanks Buddha for the beauties of his creations - especially women. With mouth-organ accompaniment: FTX-784 - In this male solo, accompanied by wooden blocks, the repartee concerns proper dress and comportment in a highly urbanized and stratified society: FTX-785 - Lua field song. Their shifting and fallowing system of digging- stick agriculture puts minimum burdens on their hillside, jungle farmland - Kai Chai Son Jungle Negritos, the aborigines of the region with a song to banish evil spirits. Female solo. (BBC Cambridge Expedition, A4): FTX-786

TIBET -- Sikkim Music to accompany the dance of the God of Death, performed by lamas/ A Tibetan lama orchestra of 2 shawms, 2 long trumpets, hand bell, cymbals, and 3 drums, plays an introduction to a prayer: FTX-781 - A devotional to the deified, 8th century founder of Lamaism; 2 shawms, 2 long trumpets, 2 shell trumpets, 2 short horns, a hand-drum, cymbals, and a frame drum/ At sunrise, lamas summon the gods to help them, and in the evening they send them back to their place with music on oboes and horns: FTX-783 - Tibetan lamas, using their voices to match the rumbling of big drums or gongs/ The same vocal strategy, carried a step farther, endows this monk's choir with the divine voice of the muttering thunder: FTX-784 - Nomadic Tibetan traders dance in a linked line, singing this one-phrase melody. Male chorus: FTX-785 - Tibet. Masked lamas prepare to drive out the demons of the old year and call on the good spirits to aid them in the new. Shawm, trumpet, drum and cymbals: FTX-787 - A pretty Tibetan girl sings sentimentally about her absent lover: FTX-788


TONGA - Polynesia -- (RPL 20468 & 30146) - talk on RPL 12/2/79 by Dr Adrienne Kepler with music examples incl large numbers of men singing & dancing with clapping: CASS 0093 - version of "Blaze Away" by Glee-Club unacc singers rec 30/11/53 from Sound Archive on Radio 2: 17/10/90: CASS-60-1017


TRISTAN DE CUNHA -- Islanders (temporarily evacuated to UK during volcanic eruption on Tristan) rec by PK & Maud Karpeles, Calshot, Hampsh 30.8.62 - 5"RTR-0914-20/ FTX-609 Songs dances customs & talk incl Basil & Percy LAVARELLO & Mary SWAIN

TUNISIA -- A song from the Awin, an oasis-dwewng people of Southern Tunisia, in the highly ornamented Old High Culture style found throughout the Sahara. Male solo: FTX-786

TURKEY -- Tapan & zurla from Anatolia "Dance with this drum" rec 1953 IFMC Festival: WESTMINSTER WL-5334/ FTX-610 - World Instruments: Shawm & drum: FTX-700 - Dervish liturgy, a supplication for mercy, utilizes increasing tempos to induce trance. Male solo: FTX-784 - Kurds. War-like Moslem mountain farmer herders with an ancient heritage of Oriental civilization. Male solo/ The Barzani Kurds are fiercely independent and warlike mountaineer-farmers and shepherds. The singer's long ornamented phrases are produced from a tense throat and a rigid body. Male solo: FTX-785 - Dervish. One-beat meter is rare in the vocal part except in children's songs or football yells, or, as here, in ritual: FTX-786 - A dervish meeting in London, where the congregants repeat the name of Allah over and over to induce trance. Male group: FTX-787 - Dervish ceremonies rec Deben Bhattacharya 1974: ARGO ZFB 91 - "Rhythms & melodies" (Blaise Calae) Club Francais - Instrum Ensembles: OCORA OCR-56 / CASS-0107 (box) - Sacred Chants of Anatolia: OCORA OCR-65 - Cabaret ensemble rec New York: SMITHSONIAN - recs by Wolf Dietrich 1977: TOPIC 12-TS-333 1977 - WOMAD TB-3 1983 Selda - tape from Peter Pilbeam 1979 of Anatolian Wedding Customs rec Ankara Radio: CASS-0072 - MUSTAPHAS :RPL Radio 2 on 9/9/87: CASS-0403 - Nedia Hazir & "Morgenland" rec by WDR (Germany) at EBU Festival in Denmark RPL Radio 2 13/1/88 CASS-0422 UGANDA -- Hugh Tracey coll East Africa: - COLUMBIA SL 213 / CASS 0048


USA --see also under under MUSIC-TYPES: BLUEGRASS - BLUES - CAJUN - SACRED HARP - SPIRITUAL - Song -Mississippi. Male solo and chorus accompanied by axes on logs: FTX-782 -Mississippi Delta. classic 12-bar blues in rock style, with charactreristic relationship of guitar and harmonica/ Mississippi. A newly-composed polyrhythmic 'double-cut' chopping song by four prisoners: FTX-783 - Mississippi prison. The major American black experience was of powerless, politically unstructured groups. Male group with axes: FTX-785 - Mississippi. A black prisoner singing his own personal field holler - a song that identifies him and expresses his feelings/ A Southern U.S. Baptist congregation singing a long meter (slow, free rhythm) version of a Welsh hymn, in heterophony, with the song leader "lining out" the words from the hymn book. Male leader and mixed group/ Oklahoma. For a time, Woody Guthrie had his own daily radio program in Los Angeles. This is a song he composed and sang for that audience about a local and disastrous flash flood/ Afro-America, Louisiana. 19th century antebellum, dance song, suitable for fiddle or banjo, kept in the repertory of Texan black prisoners. Male solo with guitar: FTX-787 - A commercial recording of Bessie Smith singing the 'Mean Old Bed Bug Blues' with piano and guitar: FTX-788 - Frank WARNER & family FTX-901 - Alan LOMAX: FTX-902 - PK's "Appalachian Trail": FTX-903 - Alan LOMAX (Texas songs): FTX-904 - Maud KARPELES Coll: FTX-907 & FTX-908 - Jim COUZA (ham dulc): FTX-909 - Michael PUNZAK (fid): FTX-910 - collection by PK: FTX-903 - coll by Maud Karpeles: FTX-907-8 - Jean JENKINS (songs with banjo): FTX-914-915 - Guy CARAWAN (songs with banjo): FTX-919 - Jean RITCHIE in Concert: FTX-920 - - coll by Frank & Anne Warner: FTX-921/ 922/ 923/ Frank PROFFITT: FTX-923/ 926/ 927/ 928/ 929/ 931/ 932/ 933 & APPLESEED APR-CD-1035 2000 - Alan LOMAX: FTX-941 - Guy CARAWAN & Peggy SEEGER: FTX-942/ "Sing Christmas" 1957 radio prog: FTX-950 - B&W Film by Pete Seeger of "Afro-American Work Songs in a Texas Penitentiary 1966: FF-3301 - HOME MADE MUSIC HMM-1 rec by Mike Yates/ CASS-0242 - Hobart SMITH (talk/ voc/ fid/ banjo/ gtr & piano): ROUNDER 1799-2 2001 - Luther STRONG (fiddle with foot stomping) rec by Alan & Elizabeth Lomax, Hazard, Kentucky, 18/10/37: ROUNDER CD 1500 1997 "Glory in the Meeting House"- CARTER Family: 7"RTR-0313-4 - Roy Edwards Thomas rec old people talking & stories in Appalachians & Ozarks (dubbed 1981) CASS 0245 - John LOMAX: Radio Research Project: Penitentiaries: AMERICAN LIB OF CONGRESS L-53 / CASS#0252 - The Hammons Family of West Virginia: AMERICAN LIB OF CONGRESS L65-6/ CASS#0251 - Samples of LIB OF CONGRESS in s/stereo 7"RTR#0309 - Louisiana Arcadians (Cajun) ARHOOLIE 5009 - Lomax recs "Sounds of the South" ATLANTIC SD-1346/ CASS#0236 & ATLANTIC 1350 - Hudie LEDBETTER ("Leadbelly") RPL 13373-5 - Jean RITCHIE rec New York 1950: RPL 16042-3 - Maud Karpeles 1st trip to Appalachians 1950: RPL 17141-5 - Dick CAMERON (with gtr) of Boston Cowboy Songs rec London Oct 1956: RPL 22998 - Maud Karpeles 2nd trip to Appalachians 1955: RPL 23792-4 & 23799 - Peggy SEEGER: RPL LP 23195 - Paul CLAYTON (with gtr) Sea Songs: RPL 23448 - Guy CARAWAN (with banjo): RPL 24129 - Sandy PATON (with gtr): RPL 24201 - Peggy SEEGER & Guy CARAWAN: RPL 24212-3 - Perry FRIEDMAN (Canadian with banjo): RPL 24566 - Lomax recs: RPL 26145-50 - Peggy SEEGER (Unesco): RPL 26265 - New York children: RPL 27257 - Bill MUNROE & BLUEGRASS BOYS: (BRUNSWICK LAT-8511) CASS#0237 - Susan REED: CBS M-61359 - "The Story of the Blues" (2 vols): CBS 66218 & CBS 66232 - SIMON & GARFUNKEL Great Hits: CBS 69003 - Oscar BRAND Singing Holidays CAEDMON TC- 1505 - "Songs of the Civil War" with the George MITCHELL Choir & Lansdowne Orchestra "The Blue and the Grey": WORLD RECORD CLUB T-629 - Jean RITCHIE Field Trip US counterparts of English f/s COLLECTOR CLE-1201 - COUNTY - Josh WHITE DECCA CP-66 & SPA-44 - ELEKTRA - EMI CAPITOL - Josh WHITE EMI CRLM-1047 - Peggy SEEGER & Guy CARAWAN EMI CLP-1174 - Alan LOMAX EMI CLP-1194 - KINGSTON TRIO EMI T-1474 & 1352 - Tex RITTER EMI DUO-112 1973 (double album) - Canterbury Country Orch F & W F-74-FW-5 - Robin WILLIAMSON & his Merry Men FLYING FISH FF-033 - FOLK LEGACY - N Carolina rec John Cohen FOLKWAYS FA-2309 1964 - rec Mike Seeger: American Banjo tunes & songs in Scruggs style (3 finger picking) (FOLKWAYS FA 2314)/ RTR-0316 - Frank PROFFITT rec by Sandy PATON: FOLKWAYS FA-2360 1962 Horton BARKER rec SP: FOLKWAYS FA-2362 1962 - Hedy WEST FONTANA FJL-506 - Doc WATSON FONTANA TFL-6083 1967 (M) "Home Again" - Jean RITCHIE GREENHAYES - Mike Yates coll in Appalachia HOME MADE MUSIC - Blue Ridge Field Trip: (LEADER 4012) - Lonnie AUSTIN & Norman WOODLIEF: LEADER 4045 1975 - Kyle CREED, Bobby PATTERSON & CAMP CREEK BOYS: LEADER LED-2053 1973 - LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COLLECTIONS - Tony MOTTOLA F/s arr with harmonica, flute, gtr, percussion, auto-harp, ocarina & effects: (LONDON HA- 2386) cass - "Banjo in the hills"(MELODISC MLP- 12-115)/ CASS#0238 - STANLEY BROTHERS Concert CASS#0477 - Jean RITCHIE: SIRE - Helen Hartness Flanders coll Vermont: MIDDLEBURY 1953 - Oscar BRAND History of '76 MILLER-BRODY - Frank WARNER with Jeff & Gerret: MINSTREL JD-204 1976 - Joe HICKERSON (unacc) rec by PK, Ciderhouse, Dartington 30/8/75 7"RTR#0305 4s - Sacred Harp (Alabama) NEW WORLD NW-205 1977 - Hymns & Spirituals (Southern Mountains) NW-294 1977 - Southern Instrum Styles NW-226 / CASS 0476-7 - Vocal & instrum Styles NW- 236 - Black Music mainly vocal NORTH CAROLINA C-101 - Bluegrass NORTHERN LIGHT - Peter PICKOW "Alice's Restaurant" PICKWICK - Jack LANGSTAFF accomp John Powell (piano) POWELL - Frank WARNER & sons: Songs of Civil War PRESTIGE 13012 - Lonnie DONEGAN HMA 204 - American Song Train Alan LOMAX & co PYE NPL-18013 - Country Blues RBF - Jimmy DRIFTWOOD RCA VICTOR LSP-1994 - Ed McCURDY RIVERSIDE R-601 - Southern Mountain R-617 - Jean RITCHIE R-620 - Ewan McCOLL & Peggy SEEGER: Matching Songs of Britain & USA R-637 - Bascom LUNSFORD & banj: R-645 Jean RITCHIE & Oscar BRAND Riddling Songs R-646 - Billy FAIER Art of 5 string banjo R-813 - Roy Edwards Thomas rec old people talking & stories in App & Ozarks (dubbed 1981] CASS 0245 - Oscar BRAND ROULETTE - ROUNDER - Roy GUEST Cowboy Songs SAGA VID 5165- SAYDISC MATCHBOX - SONET - SMITHSONIAN - Brownie McGHEE & Sonny TERRY STORYVILLE SLP 220 - SWALLOWTAIL - Hally WOOD & others TANNEHILL HW-101 1980 - Cleoffes VIGIL Alabados (New Mexico Penitente) TAOS TRP-122 - Pete SEEGER 5 str banjo tutor TOPIC 12-T-23 1954 - Pete & 5 strings TOP-33 1958 (45 EP) - Frank PROFFITT TOPIC 12-T-162 1966 - Hedy WEST (Bill CLIFTON on 2 tracks) TOPIC 12-T-163 1967 - Hedy WEST TOPIC 12-TPS-166 1966 - Alan LOMAX (voc/gtr) Guy CARAWAN (banjo) & John COLE (harmonica): TRADITION TLP-1029 1958 - LEADBELLY TRANSATLANTIC XTRA-1126 - RURAL BLUES TRANSATLANTIC XTRA 1035/1 & 2/ CASS 0248-9 - Doc & Merle WATSON UNITED ARTISTS UAS-29490 - Carnegie Hall Concert UAL 3050 - Earl TAYLOR etc UAS-6049 - Joan BAEZ solo album SVXL-100 1963 - Bobby HORTON (accomp) 1985 CASS#1232 "Homespun Songs of the CSA" (Southern Army in Civil War) - Sandy Loewenthal's "Pop" Group rec DEM Studio, Dartington by Richard Povall April 1979 CASS#0375 - Classic Coll Book of Month Club (boxed set) VANGUARD SRL-7624 - Michelle SHOCKD rec London concert Radio 2 Xmas Prog 30/12/87 CASS 0423-4 "If love was a train" - rec by Mike Yaes 1979-1983 Old Time ballad singers and musicians from Virginia & N Carolina: VWML-007 d/CASS 1026 1992 "Crazy about Song" - Instrumental -- rec 1953 IFMC Festival: FTX-610 - N Carolina harmonica player whooping a fragment of "The Fox Chase", which recreates the chase and kill of an animal. Male solo. (Seeger and Terry, A3): FTX-781 - Afro-American country jazz band performs the blues, with a whisky jug for a tub, strings for a rhythm section and a harmonica playing the lead parts that the clarinet and trumpet usually take. (Smith, Harry, A2)/ S.W. Louisiana. A Cajun waltz of the type called 'fais-do-do" ("go to sleep') because it was played for the grown-ups to dance while the babies slept in the next room. Fiddle and guitar. (Bonstein, B 1): FTX-782 - Mississippi southern black slaves and prisoners continued the African tradition of rhythmic work songs - an in-group culture Male group with axes. (Smith, Harry, A 4); FTX-783 - Lomax coll fiddler: RPL 26144 - Old Time Fiddlers Repertory: Missouri 1976 - Kimbles (Instrum) Virginia: MOUNTAIN MUSIC 4174 - Mike Seeger's Selection (cassette) 1974 - NEW FREEDOM - Paul CADWELL (banjo) & Frank BANTY (piano) rec New Rochester, New Jersey 1959: RTR-0321 - Recs made at a Concert in Virginia nd: RTR- 0322 incl Horton Barker, fiddlers & banjo - Aly BAIN "Down Home" (TV Series) in USA & Canada: LISMOR LIF-7011 1986/ CASS 0814 incl Cape Breton fiddlers, Bill Monroe & Bluegrass Boys, Mike Seeger, Tommy Jarrell etc - Children - Children's Songs NW-291 1978

USA & CANADA - AMERICAN INDIANS - see also SOUTH AMERICA -- Southwest, Western Apache. A song for the Devil Dance, part of the nine day girls' puberty rite, Male group with drum and legbells/ E. Woodlands, Choctaw Walk and Jump Dance. Mississippi/ Southwest. Taos Pueblo men singing a gambling song: FTX-782 - Navaho Night Chant, part of a nine-day initiation rite for adolescents. Male singers with rattles/ Plains Teton buffalo hunters and mounted warriors of the Sioux confederacy, vigorously calling out their Omaha Dance song. Male group with drum/ N. American Plains, Cheyenne. A gently crooned lullaby from a valorous people who fought an epic battle against white man's domination/ Northern Territory. A Yirrkala tribesman of a diet-poor, acephalous, aboriginal culture sings an embellished sacred song for healing the wounded. Male solo with sticks: FTX-783 - Southwest, Zuni. A carefully rehearsed rain-making song, performed by a male choir (See Kraho and Cayapo examples for similar pitch levels)/ Southwest, Navaho. Male chorus with cooing night chant/ Southwest, Pima. A male group sings about how a warrior, exhausted from fighting to protect his people, is fanned by admiring maidens. Male group: 784 - Southwest, Navaho. In the squaw dances that occur outside a hogan where a curing ceremony is taking place, the girls approach the men. Male chorus/ Plateau, Flathead. An Owl Dance Song with nonsense syllables, large intervals, irregular meters, cascading phrases - a characteristic combination among the non-stratified, hunting tribes of the Americas: FTX-785 - Pueblos. The people of Taos, though they live in a superb pueblo, are Plains in origin. In the summer the young men gather at the bridge and sing in the moonlight - songs like this dance tune, its high pitch level reminiscent of Plains singing/ Navaho, a modern piece, with harmonica accompaniment. Mixed group with drum/ The Comanche, formerly hunters and warriors of the Texas prairies, perform a Christian hymn in their own tongue/ Southwest. The Papago are incipient producers in the arid Rio Grande country with a preference for cohesive unison performance of simple rather than complex strophes. Male group: FTX-786 - Southwest. Pima men with drum accompaniment in the tonally individualized, but rhythmically cohesive unison style of the Southwest incipients/ N. America, Mississippi. A Choctaw Indian, heritor of a tribal tradition of complementary maize gardening, sings a Drunk Song with repetitions, wide leaps and wide voices/ Southwest. Papago curing chant, one of many the medicine man would sing in all-night ceremonies, shaking his gourd rattle and occasionally brushing the patient with healing eagle feathers. Male solo with rattle/ Southwest, Pima. Strophes, notably those with many phrases and complex structure, are especially frequent in North American Indian cultures. Four men with drum/ Plains Cree (Canada). This melodic form - combined with a terraced shape, high register, large intervals, and much repetition- form a pattern typical of the nomadic hunters of the Northern Plains. Male solo with drum/ Plains Indians, Pawnee. A ghost dance from the pan-Indian revivalistic movement of the 1870s which for a time rallied the hopes of the Plains Indians as they were being pushed out of their ancestral hunting grounds. Male solo with drum: FTX-787 - Huron Iroquois (Canada) A thanksgiving ritual Corn Dance song from the contemporary religious observances of the Huron-Iroquois tribes of the N. East, led by a Cayuga/ Southern Plains, Kiowa. Complex strophes with much textual repetition are commonest among game producers. Note terraced melodic shape and glottal shake - other frequent North Amerindian traits. Male solo/ Pueblo. Plains influence in the high-pitched, embellished, tense-voiced, tremulous and terraced singing of Taos/ The Plateau Flat head (with Plains connections) perform an Owl Dance, where couples move around a circle in a shuffling step. Two males/ Eastern Woodlands, Choctaw, heritors of the Mississippi Valley culture and of a richt often polyphonic song tradition. Male solo/ Plateau, Flathead, linked to Plains horse culture. A sweat-house song for curing. Female solo: FTX-788 - Southwest Navaho. Masked dancers, representing the grandfathers of the gods, perform this yeibichai chant with its characteristic high-pitched sound, at the time when the young people are initiated into the ceremonial life of the tribe. Male singers with rattles/ California, Hupa. Vocal polyphony is virtually unknown among North Amerindians, except among the complementary acorn-gathering tribes of North California, who habitually sing in this style. Three men/ Pueblo, Zuni. Carefully rehearsed and performed so as to induce the gathering of the clouds and the coming of the rains. The Rain Dance has as big and complex a melodic and choreographic structure as any art form in the world. Mixed group: FTX-789 - AMERICAN LIB OF CONGRESS AAFS L22 Chippewa Indians/ CASS-0212 - AAFS L-36/ CASS-0250 American Indian Songs of Today - AAFS L-40/ CASS- 0249 Sioux Indians - COLUMBIA SL-211 Canada - SL-212 Venezuela - FOLKWAYS FM 4006 Nova Scotia Micmac American/ Canadian - Eskimo Weather Chant/ Iroquois Lullaby -- AMERICAN LIB OF CONGRESS - "Acoustic Roots": Radio 2 10/5/89 CASS-0428 incl Johnny Cash etc - Cree Indians (mouth music) BBC Radio 19/4/89: CASS-10-0717 - Louis SOLOMON (with drum) rec by Frank & Anne Warner, Hogansburg, NY USA: APPLESEED APR-CD-1035 2000 Mohawk Chant & War Cry - Belo COZAD, Kiowa Indian flute - talk before) rec by Willard Rhodes, Andarko, Oklahoma, Summer 1941: ROUNDER CD 1500 1997 - Rain Dance performed by George BUCK, Red Jacket & group with water-drum & horn rattle rec by National Film Coard, Grand River Reserve, Ontario: from World Library ed by Marius Barbeau/ ROUNDER CD 1700 1997 USA: GEORGIA SEA ISLANDS -- Bessie JONES sings a tradtitional Southern lullaby to the kind of regular, simple meter most characteristic in agricultural societies where it may stand for the regular routines essential to farm work: FTX-786 - Bessie JONES with Georgia Sea Island Singers rec by Alan Lomax 1959: RPL LP 26150 (3 songs)/ ATLANTIC SD-1350 1960 - with Ed YOUNG (can fife), Hobart SMITH (gtr) & Georgia Sea Island Singers (voc & handclapping) rec by Alan Lomax, St Simon's Island, April 1960 "O Day" & "Just Suits Me"/ with John & Peter DAVIS, Henry MORRISON, Willis PROCTOR rec Frederica Apr 1960 "Sink em low": ROUNDER CD-1701 1997 - Nat RAHMINGS (drum) with Hobart SMITH (banjo) & Ed YOUNG (cane-fife) rec by AL Williamsburg, Va Apr 1960 "Beulah Land": ROUNDER CD-1701 1997/ ROUNDER 1708 1997 "I got a home" & "Walk on the Bay"

VENEZUELA: - SOUTH AMERICA - Indian Jews harp: FTX-700 - Guarauno, Orinoco Delta, interlock, typical of the semi-nomadic gatherers of the river: FTX-782 - Orinoco Delta, A Guarauno medicine man singing a curing song in the raspy voice that so many Amer-indian shamans employ in therapeutic chants: FTX-784 - Orinoco Delta. A woman of these semi-nomadic, riverine Guarauno gatherers sings a modern song: FTX-788 - COLUMBIA SL-212 - recs by Juan Liscano 1939-43: LIB OF CONGRESS L-15 1946 - coll Isabel Aretz & others: OCORA OCR-78 / CASS 0144 (box) - Group with bongoes, maraccas & ping-pong 1955 RPL LP 23930


VIRGIN ISLANDS -- Melcena SMITH & Elias FAZER rec by John Storm Roberts, Tortola, Virgin Islands 1982: ROOT & BRANCH #1 1999 "The Butcher Boy"


WORLD -- "Blind Man's Holiday" Songs from Czech, Romania, Greece, Africa, Vietnam, Turkey, Hungary, Ireland, Brazil with talk about group (Australian) on Radio "Folk on Two" 18/10/89: CASS-0164 - History of Music: Ancient & oriental (Egon Wellesz EMI HLP-2 - UNESCO Radio Selection of World Folk Instruments: RTR 0782-0788/ FTX-700 - "The World Encompassed" Ethno-musicology Training Course introduced by Alan Lomax: FTX-781 - FTX-789 - Far East, India, Africa & Americas, Continental Europe NONESUCH H-7-11 - THE PENNYWHISTLERS: NONESUCH H-72007 - IFMC Festival 1953 WESTMINSTER WL-5324 / CASS-60-0543 - WOMAD - CANTOMETRICS Lecture "Map of World Music" RTR-0310

YUGOSLAVIA - Bosnia & Hercegovina: FTX-601 - Montenegro & Slovenia: FTX-602 - - Croatia: FTX-603 - Macedonia: FTX-604 - Serbia: FTX-605 - ROUNDER 1745-2 (Double CD of PK's recordings including those on COLUMBIA SL-217 1951) 2001 - items rec at 1953 IFMC Festival: FTX-610 - World Instruments: "Sopela" shawms: FTX-700 - Montenegro dance song in which the village girls challenge the lads to seize them. Male group and female group: FTX-781 - West Macedonia. Here an orchestra of winds and drones play, as two or three circles of dancers move round in a big wedding dance, held at the center of the village. Orchestra of clarinet, cornet, trombone and two drums: FTX-782 - East Serbia. A springtime ritual song from a region long dominated by the Turkish Empire with its oriental culture/ Serbia. The ties of Turkish rule, are perceptible in the ornamental, rhythmically free narrative song about the Turkish wars. Female solo: 786 - A ritual song for St. George's Day from the Serbian mountains with femalegroupsoveriapping: FTX-787 - Serbia. Work song with clashing seconds in a style imitative of bagpipes. Four females/ Istria harbours an ancient diaphony of untempered thirds and sixths, alternating with unison and octaves. Two males: FTX-788 - COLUMBIA SL-217 1951 rec by PK, Opatija 1950/ ROUNDER 1745 (Double CD) 2001 - Fred GREGORICH (p-acc) of Slovenia rec Cleveland, Ohio, USA: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 "Soldier Boy Polka" -- Lea NICHOLSON "Kopya" dance tune in 7/4 time LEADER LER-3010 - Dances & F/s of Central & E Macedonia LYCEUM LCGW-103 - rec by Deben Bhattachyra ARGO ZFB-53 1971 / Sampler ZFB 212 - PENNYWHISTLERS rec New York NONESUCH H-72007 & 72024 - Village Music rec Koenig 72042 - Serbia rec Vuysteke OCORA 558-548 1980/ CASS-0139 (box) - Serbia RADIO/TV/BELGRADE EP-11-072 - Tina ROZAC Ensemble rec London 1961 TOPIC TOP-64 (45-EP) - rec Wolf Dietrich: TOPIC 12-TS-224 / CASS 0085 - Billy FAIER (banjo): RIVERSIDE 813 "Kolo" (instrumental) - SMITHSONIAN Group in the USA: "Wedding Song" - Croatian Group rec at 1953 IFMC Festival WESTMINSTER WL-5334 - Slaj Mjesce: YugoSlav Wedding Song: SMITHSONIAN Music from the Festival of American Folklife - Silent b/w film of kaval-maker by Hadzimanov about 1955 (on video)

ZAIRE - Hugh TRACEY Collection - BOITE A MUSIQUE Musee de l'Homme 1946 (7" EP) Pygmies of High Sanga - OCORA OCR-35 1966 4 tribes/ CASS-0122 (box) - 53 1971 Mongo/ CASS-0110 (box) - 61 1970 Kuba/ CASS-0152 (box) - WOMAD-1 1982 EKIPE "Kanda Bongo Man" - CASS-0096 rec Queen Elizabeth Hall concert: "Music of the Royal Courts" RPL 7/7/87 Babunde & Pende - Jean Jenkins on RPL Radio 3 1974 Jean Bosco MWENDA - "Aime Bebe" Nsimba FOGUIS & TAXI PATA PATA Music of Zaire & Zimbabwe NYIRANGONGO MUSIC CTAX-1 CASS-1222

ZAMBIA -- COLUMBIA SL-213 Tracey Coll: East Africa/ CASS-0048

ZIMBABWE - Northern Rhodesia -- COLUMBIA SL-213 Tracey coll East Africa/ CASS-0048 - DISC-AFRIQUE AFRI-01 "Take Cover" Zimbabwe hits - "Aime Bebe" Nsimba FOGUIS & TAXI PATA PATA Music of Zaire & Zimbabwe NYIRANGONGO MUSIC CTAX-1 CASS-1222


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