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ADMIRALTY ISLANDS - (incl New Guinea) - MELANESIA . Admiralties, Usiai. Like other Melanesians, these root-pig gardeners were occasional cannibals, perhaps because of the relative scarcity of available protein in their diet: FTX-783

AFGHANISTAN -- Badarkchan Tadjiks - drum rhythm - CANTOMETRICS-915 B1/12

AFRICA - see also ALGERIA - LIBYA - MOROCCO - TUNISIA - EGYPT -- Sylvia MOORE World Folksong: FTX-137 - World Instruments: FTX-700 - String Instruments: FTX-801 - Reeds: FTX-802 - Drums: FTX-803 - Flutes: FTX-804 - Xylophones: FTX-805 - Guitars 1: FTX-806 - Animal Stories: FTX-809 - Xylophone orchestras (Ngodo) 1: FTX-810 - Xylo Orch 2: FTX-811 - Gumboot Dancers: FTX-812 - Protest Songs: FTX-813 - Work: FTX-814 - Metal Reeds: FTX-815 - Kenya: Children: 821 - Luo Cattle-herders (The sandbagger likens the chief to a rock in the lake which stops the fish from passing (and thus feeds the people). Male solo with mixed group, stamping with legbells/ Highland Bantu, neighbours of the Kikuyu, perform a dance song about a cattle raid. Male solo, with female group and male group/ Mozambique Chopi composers create long compositions for massed xylophones and dancers. This one contains 15 movements: - Malagasi: Ambilube tribesmen harmonizing 'praise' songs such as this one addressed to the king. / Senegal: Wolof cattle-herding and hoe agriculture, West Sudanese praise-song type: FTX-781 - The Dogon say 'To mourn the dead is to sow the grain" and here the cries of mourners fall on the ears irregularly, like seeds from the hand of the sower/ Tanzania: Gogo. The lead instrument is a 20-note mbira, with a mechanically boosted bass/ Tanzania: Hehe. Clapping in rhythmic unison is most common in children's groups. Female group/ Zimbabwe: Boys in a gym class clash their wooden dumb-bells together to the rhythm set by their drummer-song-leader/ Malawi, Sakalava. Hocketing on seven whistles: FTX-789 #19)/ Middle Congo, Kikuyu. A typical example of juxtaposing two different kinds of voices (one sweet, one harsh) and two different meters / Malawi, Nsenga. Three women pound grain with pestles and mortars and sing in a relaxed, breathy vocal style/ E. Africa, Central Sudan, Mayogo. A dance song for two great circle-files, men inside, women around them, with music by three slit drums, four deep drums, one double bell and male leader with mixed chorus/ Mbuti Pygmies singing a party song in their interlocked, canonic style. Male group/ Bebenzele Pygmies with a song that was once magic for the hunt and has now become an entertainment piece. Mixed group: FTX-782 - S. Sudan. The Pari are semi-nomadic, Nilotic. Male singer with mixed chorus and long horn/ Upper Volta. These two Bambara farmers journey hundreds of miles every year to play their xylophones at the palace of their king; the bells on their wrists jingle/ The Luo have a rich diet of food and music, drawing upon both Bantu and Nilotic traditions. Male solo and male group/ Banda. After the first rain of the season, children go single-file around the village clapping and singing this song for good fortune/ Ivory Coast, Baule. A festival song with mixed chorus and drums, from a tribe whose music strongly resembles that of the West Indies: FTX-783 - C.Africa. Pygmy woman singing at her tasks to maintain contact between people at a distance/ C. Africa. Ekonda. An extended , poly-parted composition about how the Ekonda tribe resembles the big-rooted, stately bokunga tree. Male groups/ C Africa, Lake Albert, Mayogo (Gogo). Polyphonic, polyrhythmic overlap between leader, male and female groups, three mbiras and a basket rattle/ E. Africa, Hehe. A man of this grain and cattle-raising folk sings to amuse himself as he strums his zither/ The Luo, compose praise songs to particular cows or bulls. Male solo with eight-string lyre and legbells/ C. Africa. The Congo Ekonda with one part of a remarkable choral suite performed with parallel chords and overlap. Female chorus/ C.Africa Topoke. Female chorus overlapping/ A Topoke man, from a clan-organized, extended-family society, sings of his dangerous work - harvesting palm fruit high up in the trees. Male solo/ E. Africa, Watutsi. From the tall, imperial Nilotic cattle herders comes this embellished epic about warlike exploits of by-gone days. Male solo/ Mozambique Chopi man laments the theft of his palm trees, accompanying himself polyrhythmically by shaking a little sprig of dry seed pods/ C. Africa. A Babinga Pygmy woman leads a group in a contrapuntal song that have no words, but which all present know as a magic song for elephant hunting/ W. Africa, Cameroons. Bafut young men and women make their own tight, swinging rhythm for a moonlight dance. Female leader with male group/ C. Africa. A Babenzele Pygmy woman singing a magical chant/ Kenya. An African band sings a little strophe with string accompaniment: FTX-784 - West Africa. A Bafut lad sings with the breath-softened resonance black singers often employ/ E. Africa, Watutsi. Another bard (this one from a black absolute monarchy) declaims a hunting song. Male solo/ West Africa. The Malinke are millet farmers, who once built an empire and whose 'praise songs,' like this one, may be one origin-point of the blues. Male solo with harp/ S. Africa. A Bushman giraffe-magic song that came to an old medicine woman in a dream. She sings it with two of her cronies/ W. Africa, Dahomey. A choir of women sing of the greatness and warlike prowess of one of the kings of Abomey. The accompaniment is a calabash hung with strings of cowries and snake vertebrae/ C. Africa, Babenzele Pygmy. A well-blended, interlocked, poly-parted chorus from a band-organised, gathering culture, singing with wide voices, large intervals and much repetition: FTX-785 - C. Africa, Middle Congo, Babanzele Pygmies. A female yodeling work song from this forest, where women are the chief producers and are socially dominant/ S. Africa. The Shona are extraordinary musicians, as this performance by a group of blind singers testifies. The bugle note is produced by breathing in past the palm leaf string of the musical bow/ E. Africa. The Pari, one of the many Nilotic herding tribes of Eastern Sudan, , present a praise song to the chief. 20-30 women with a female leader/ N. Africa. Saharan Tuareg man accompanied on a one-string fiddle sings, "All day I have been in pain; I am like a child who hates even his mother's breast; all I desire is the tall girl whose beauty surpasses the stars in the Southern Cross"/ S. Africa, Ndau. A composer-bard sings elegant syncopation against the rippling polyrhythms he thumbs on his mbira/ C. Africa. Bapende children sing in an overlapped, parallel-chord, unified, liquid-voiced style/ The Sudan. The Shilluk - a semi-nomadic people of North-east Africa, who have a different cultural, linguistic tradition from the black Bantu Africans. Here a chief tells how he avoided war over a water-hole and led his people to a peaceful place. Male solo/ C. Africa, Luba. One of the great confederations of the Central Congo, offers this topical song, self-accompanied. Male solo with mbira/ C. Africa. Luo, of Nilotic origin in the hills west of Lake Victoria, sing a gentle ironic love song to an over-loving wife: "she loves me so much that she forgets her duties and I have to remind her to go back to work". Male solo with string bowl lute/ C. Africa. The Hehe, live in dispersed homesteads, in the arid Rift country. This hoeing song which says 'hunger makes me weak' reflects the hardship in their lives. Male leader with male group: FTX-786 - W. Africa, Bulu (Fang). A women's dance song performed by a leader with mellow-voiced chorus and clapped accompaniment/ E. Africa, Nilotic Kipsigi. Cushites of partly Caucasian descent, who practice intensive terraced agriculture in the mountains of N.E. Kenya, sing this chorus in overlapped counterpoint to a six-string lyre accompaniment/ N.W. Africa. Mauretanian griots (bards) performing a hanoun, praising the emir, accompanied by a lute and by drumming on the soundbox of a harp. Male and female soloists/ S.E. Africa. The Chagga exhibit the magnificence of African mass-singing with its overlapping parts, its fluid harmonies and its surging power. Male leader with mixed group/ W. Africa, Upper Volta, Gwin. The chief has died and a female mourner is improvising a funeral lament with the support of her neighbors, accompanied by the insects of the night: FTX-787 - Kenya Highland Bantu. The Chagga are cattle herders and terrace farmers, organised into patrilineal clans (with bride price) and into age-set retinues serving powerful chiefs. Female leader and female group perform a topical dance song/ Zimbabwe. The Shona, organized in patrilineages with bride service, built a powerful cattle-herding kingdom like that of the Zulu. Their performance epitomises the African playful use of vocal timbre. Male solo, female solo with mbira/ Nilote Luo. A praise song by farmers and cattle-herders with patrilineal clans and bride price. Male solo with thum (eight-string lyre) and leg-bells/ S. Ethiopia, Sidamo. are Western Cushites (the ancient Caucasoids of East Africa) whose country is ruled by a divine king. has highways for rapid transportation and is surrounded by a palisade. Here a mixed chorus sings in the yodeling, hocketing style found in so many isolated cultural pockets of the world, singing the way they play their panpipes (orchestras of single-noted horns)/ E. Africa, Nilotes. Dinka, a semi-nomadic cattle people,half a million strong, where the youthful male age-grade is assigned to stay with the herds. Such complex litanies are most frequent in Black Africa. Female singer/ E. Africa, Sudanic Mayogo. A topical song, voiced with wonderfully resonant nasality by a chief and his attendants. Basket rattle accompaniment/ South Africa, Ndau. Descending cadences like these are more frequent in black African tradition than elsewhere. Male accompanying himself on mbira/ C. Sudan, Mombutu. Male solo with mixed chorus and three thumb pianos/ Zambia, Nsenge. A song for a boy's initiation. Masked dancer, chorus of men with leg-bells and five drums/ C. Africa. Mbuti Pygmies, gatherers of the rainforest, sing in their hocketing, yodeling, interlocked style in a joyful celebration of a girl's first menarche/ E. Africa, Somaliland. Desert camel herders have many songs for managing their prized, but temperamental animals. This one is to make them drink. Male chorus/ Kenya Masai. These warriors, who live on the mixed blood and milk of their cattle, sing an epic narrative. Male leader with mixed chorus. Drone polyphony/ C. Congo, Mbuti Pygmies. Three women sing after a fishing trip: FTX-788 - Senegal. Casamence Griot (bard and topical composer), accompanying himself on the kora (21-string harp-lute). Male solo with harp-lute/ Shona. In a foiktale a deer sings this song. Mixed group/ Ethiopia, Gomo-Gupe Province. Fifty men of the Cushitic-speaking Dorze tribe casually sing in four-part polyphony in the yodeling, interlocked style of the African gatherers/ Ivory Coast, Bedouni Region. The Baule are famed for their art and music. To my mind, their style is one of those most often heard in West Indian, traditional folk music. This is music for initiation, with overlapping choruses, four drums, rattles and a sistra: FTX-789 - Hugh Tracey Collection: COLUMBIA SL-213 East Africa/ CASS 0048 - Jean Jenkins Intro to African Music Radio 3 1974: CASS-0074 - Rendille songs (N Kenya) rec by Anders Grum 1981 (see letter file) CASS-0073 / CASS-0048- Sudan: Abdel Aziz El MUBARAK (voc & lute) with Azhari Abdel GADIR (p-acc) rec 1980: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Central African Republic: OCORA OCR 43/ CASS 0118 (box) - Kenya: Rendille Nomads rec by Anders Grum 1981 (see letter file): CASS-0073 - WOMAD Intro to Africa 1985: CASS-0076 Dembo KONTI: 8/11/87: CASS-90-0550 - ELLIPSIS ARTS 3XCD 3301-3302 & 3303 1994"Never Stand Still" - Colin Turnbull's rec of pygmies of Ituri Forest ELLIPSIS ARTS #4020 1995 CD & Book "Echoes of the Forest" - Louis Sarno's rec of Babenzele pygmies ELLIPSIS ARTS 3490 1995 (CD inside book)"Bayaka" - Fuday Musa SUSO: ELLIPSIS ARTS CD3510 1996 "Jali Kunda" (Griots of West Africa) rec in Mali, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau & Gambia AFRICA rec in Britain -- "Aime Bebe": Nsimba FOGUIS & TAXI PATA PATA Music of Zaire & Zimbabwe NYIRANGONGO MUSIC CTAX-1 CASS#1222

ALBANIA -Musical Instruments of the World: FTX-700 - Gegs. A woman of this fiercely independent, but stratified, mountain-shepherd society sings a nina-nana, or lullaby: FTX-785 - An epic ballad set to a one-phrase melody from one of the European strongholds of the zadruga (the extended family settlement). Male group in unison: FTX-787 - Epic ballad male group in unison: 90916 A2/5 - Yugoslavia rec by PK: COLUMBIA SL 217 1951/ ROUNDER 1745 (Double CD) 2001 - TINA ROZANC Ensemble: TOPIC TOP 112 (EP) & TOPIC 12-T-154 - Jim Lloyd's tribute to A L Lloyd: 9/11/82 CASS 15-0762









ARAGON & VALENCIA - Recordings - see SPAIN

ARGENTINA -- Gran Chaco. The Matacos once were warlike mounted hunters of the pampas, raiding white settlements; in many ways, as in their music, they resemble the North American Plains Indians. Male Solo: FTX-786 - Lola Keipja, the last of the Ona - a Patagonian hunting tribe exterminated by Europeans - performs a spirit possession song: 788 - 90-906 B3/10 - TOPIC TOP-46 (45 EP) LEDA & MARIA Songs & dances - cass dub of Kitty Turner's 78 rpm disks of South America CASS-0091 BARCLAY 820-054 LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia - Raul BARBOZA (button acc with bandoneon) rec Corrientes followed by 2 Tangos played on the bandoneon: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

ARMENIA -- Two duduks (double reeds) in the free rhythm, microtonal, ornamental, glissando style customary in Old High Culture: FTX-787 - Armenia & Achugh: - OCORA OCR 50 rec Robert Ataian (Radio)/ CASS-0113 (box) - OCORA OCR-59/ CASS-0105 - 59 Poem chant: Achugla (Radio)/ CASS-0105 (box)- 66 Chants Liturgiques - 67 Instrumental Music/ CASS-0151 (box)



AUSTRALIA - see also NEW GUINEA - PAPUA - ABC PRS 1653 SYDNEY Symph Orch: Music of Percy Grainger - RRCS-131 MELBOURNE Symph Orch: As previous - CASS- 0042-3 & 0045 (Columbia SL-208: Australia & New Guinea) - LARRIKIN LRD-001 (S) 1975 Mining "Man of the Earth"/ CASS-0158 - LARRIKIN LRD-007 Bush Traditions rec Warren Fahey/ CASS 0154 - LARRIKIN LRD-028 nd CASS#1212 Warren FAHEY & THE LARRIKINS - LARRIKIN 0LRD-34 Piano Rolls: Percy GRAINGER - LARRIKIN LRD- 9012 (2 LPs) "While the Billy boils" Panorama of Australian Folklore/ CASS-0479 - PIGS WHISKER PWM-004 (c) Robin WILLIAMSON Story of "Wee Jack & Lord Mayor" ends at Sydney Opera House - rec Asia-Pacific Union Festival of Radio Folkmusic Radio 12/10/79: CASS-15-0745 - Colin Irwin's radio prog 1988 "Acoustic Roots": CASS-0351 - Greg CHAMPION Cricket Song/ Eric BOGLE & Band "Harry's Wife": Radio 2, 24/8/88: CASS-15-0732

AUSTRALIA -- Aborigines -- N. Arnhemland aborigines ritual summoning the souls of departed heroes. Male solo with sticks/ Marajin. Four old men simultaneously sing variations on a devotional song, with stick accompaniment: FTX-781/ Arnhemland, Jiwadja. A song describing a big salt-water fish swimming alone. Male group with horn and sticks/ Arnhemland. A sacred chant of the Marajin aborigines. Mixed group: FTX-782 Northern Territory, Australia. A Yirrkala tribesman sings an embellished sacred song for healing the wounded. Male solo with sticks: FTX-783 - Arnhemland aborigine singing a totemic clan song about the damala (white sea hawk), swooping down from the clouds and catching fish. Male solo/ N.E. Australia, near Cape York, Yarrabah. The old men maintained their dominance in Australian aboriginal society, in part by elaborate song rituals for totemic, place-attached ancestors, by drastic genital mutilation in initiation and by early marriage to pre-adolescent girls. They sing with a very tense, noisy vocal delivery and in a unique cadential style. Male solo: FTX-784 - Arnhemland aborigines. The old men, who ritually controlled the clans, made the initiation into ritual expertise a long-drawn-out process, which gave rise to enormously elaborated musical and choreographic traditions/ Arnhemland aborigines. A repetitious male solo with stick accompaniment: FTX-785 - Aborigines. These nomadic gatherers have developed ceremonialism and, it is said, psychological control and pass on their elaborate, totemic ritual songs. Male with sticks: FTX-786 - Arnhemland. Sticks accompany the didjeridu. It plays in unison with the singers performing a terraced melody to an irregular meter, in unison with each other/ C. Arnhemland. Semi-professional stickman and songman perform dance music accompanied on the a large-bore, wooden trumpet requiring great strength and control. Three males: FTX-787 - Northern Territory Aborigines. The songman beats two sticks together and the dijeridoo-player breathes rumbling notes from his hollowed tree branch making music for the evening dance before the musicians at the campfire - the women a little way off in the shadows - and from time to time the leading dancer gives a climactic cry. Two male solos with male chorus, horns and sticks: FTX-789 - ALBATROS VPA-8279 rec Wolfgang Laade 1963-4 Cape York Peninsula/ CASS-0069 - COLUMBIA SL-208 (& cassette copy) World Library of Folk & Primitive Music rec by A P Elkin: Arnhem Land, Northern Territory & Eastern New Guinea - CASS-0068 from Roy Mallet of interview in NY - WOMAD 002 Didgeridoo solo & song - rec in UK -- ARGO ZFB-35 1971 TINKERS - ZFB-82 1973 Martin WYNDHAM-READ - RPL REC-95 1970 Redd SULLIVAN - LEADER 2019 1970 Martin Wyndham-Read & 2028 solo album - PHILIPS 638-2022 1967 Martin CARTHY "Streets of Forbes" - TOPIC 12-T-51 1960 A L LLOYD - 12-TS-203 1971 LLoyd, Martin Wyndham- Read & Trevor LUCAS - 12-TS-411 1980 Nic JONES "Farewell to the Gold" - 12-TS-437 1988 Eric BOGLE - Glen TOMASETTI (voc/gtr) rec by PK London 1962: "Denis O Reilly" "Jim Jones at Botany Bay" "Jack Lefroy"

AUSTRIA -- RPL 21668 Ch singing/ Zither & carillon Kufstein 1954 - Hans-Peter FALKNER (4-row diatonic accordion) with ATTWENGER incl yodelling & drum: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

AZERBAIJAN -- Female solo with lute. (Russia.#1,C3)/ Azerbaijani have inhabited the East Caucasus since ancient times. Male solo with strings/ The quintessence of the florid style of Middle Eastern fine-art song: FTX-785

BAHREIN -- OCORA OCR-42 Pearl fishers in Persian Gulf/ CASS-0119 (box)

BALEARIC ISLANDS -- IBIZA - MALLORCA - MENORCA - Balearics, Iviza. Formal glottal ornamentation, unique in West Europe is the hallmark of traditional song in this former Carthaginian outpost. Like their forebearers, Ivizians devote their lives to the sea. Female solo with drum: FTX-785 - recs by Alan Lomax incl Mallorca & Ibiza: COLUMBIA SL-216

BALI - see also GAMELAN - JAVA -- ARGO ZFB-73 Gamelan orch - SPA-212 World of Travel (sampler) - CANTOMETRICS 90-012 A2/1 "Kechak" (monkey chant) - B2/6 & B3/14 Gamelan orch - 90-015 B2/14 Funeral gamelan or Ankhung - COLUMBIA SL-210 Indonesia rec Jaap Kunst/ CASS 0046 - EMI HLP-1 History of Music B5 (a) Gamelan "Drunken woodpecker" (B) Excerpt of Balinese Theatre (c) from Gamboch - NONESUCH H-711 "Ketjak" (Ramayana Monkey Chant) - H 2015 Gamelan rec David Lewiston - OCORA OCR-60 Music & Theatre/ CASS-0153 (box) - OCR-72 Trance dances & music 1971/ CASS-0149 (box) - WOMAD 002 Sasono Mulyo Gamelan Orch - WARNER WEA KG "Ketjak" (Ramayana Monkey Chant) - Wayang Gamelan orhestra rec by Jaap Kunst, Ubud, Bali: from COLUMBIA World Library/: ROUNDER CD 1700 1997

BASQUE COUNTRY, THE - FRANCE: Ustaritz and SPAIN: Alava, Guipuzcoa & Vizcaya -- IFMC Festival: incl Basque rec 1953: FTX-610- Douglas Kennedy talks about first encounters with their Morris: FTX-481- FTX-493 (on FTX-491) - International Folk Music Council 1953 Festival in both Biarritz, France & Pamplona, Spain: FTX-606 - FTX-607 ("RTR-0452-6) - WESTMINSTER WL-5334 1953 IFMC World Festival Pamplona & Biarritz 1953 incl Basque,Valencia & Seville (also incl other countries taking part): FTX-610 - A crowd from the fishermen's guild, just off the boats, demonstrated the solilarity for which the Basques are famed, in this unrehearsed and spontaneous performance. (Lomax #21 B6)/ A Basque girl sings a dance tune to the tambourine and alboca (a form of double oboe). Female solo: FTX-782 - Spanish Basque. For my benefit the bersolari (verse-maker) began "In America they know nothing about our town". He then improvised a poem celebrating the beauties of the place: FTX-784 - Spain. A Basque bersolari (poet) improvising a new verse- an asymmetrical 8-phrase strophe in irregular meter: FTX-785 - The Basque culture and language and their democratic and complementary society antedate that of Spain. They have fought and are still fighting to maintain cultural autonomy. A love song from a corn-shucking. Female group: FTX-786 - . Inheritors of a big-family, complementary, cohesive way of life, Basques are polyphonic choralizers, as for example with this local male choir: FTX-788 - COLUMBIA SL-207 France #20-26 (mainly song - no txistu) & SL-216 Spain #33-35 (no txistu) - Group rec London 21/8/54: RPL 20500 - Solo girl dance tune with alboca (double oboe)/ - Improvised verses by bersolari/ Female love song/ Local male choir - Kepa JUNKERA (melodeon): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Musicians of the Town of Pamplona ELKAR-LP-248 (signed by the musicians on their visit to Gloucester)

BELGIUM -- Belgian TV/ Radio BELGIAN R/TV DL 111-427 "Ethnical Music" with Customs incl Binche, Children's Games, Ballads etc. -Walloon & Flemish songs & dances Vuylsteke coll 1980/ CASS 0140 (box)/ OCORA 558-594 - Blowzabella Band: PLANT LIFE 038 1982 Kolomtanz (Flemish) - Flemish bagpipes: CASS 0030 - "Bone March" from Brabant Area: on Radio 2 28/12/88: CASS 60-0547

BERMUDA - Group of men from Andros Island rec by Alan Lomax, Nassau, Bahamas Aug 1935: ROUNDER CD-11661-1822-2 1999 "Roll him along" (AAFS 507B)

BHUTAN -- rec by John Levy 1971 (RPL LP 34691-3)

BOLIVIA - see also CHILE - ECUADOR - PERU -- TUMI 002-8 cassettes - WOMAD-1 1982 Raindrops pattering - cassette of S America commercial 78rpm disks from Kitty Turner - CASS 0091 BARCLAY 820-054 LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia - "Carnival de los Andes -1" TUMI C-007 1986 CASS#1223 - K'JARKAS "Sol de Los Andes" TUMI C-008 CASS#1216 - RUMILLAJTA "Hoja de Coca" TUMI SRT-4KC-198 CASS#1217 - RUMILLAJTA "Pachamama"(Mother Earth) TUMI C-003 CASS#1218 - MALLKU DE LOS ANDES "On the Wings of the Condor" TUMI C-004 CASS-1219 - KJARKAS "Bolivia" TUMI C-005 CASS-1220 - LOS JAIRAS "Chacaltaya" The Music of the Andes" TUMI c-006 CASS-1221


BRAZIL -- The Iawa tribe perform a song of fishing magic. Mixed group: FTX-781 - Yoruba songs and rites, unremembered in Nigeria, survive in the cults of Bahia like this hymn to Shango, God of thunder/ Interior Amazonia. Campa. A social dance song by mixed group with drum/ Interior Amazonia. Coto (Orejon) Indians collectively wailing over a corpse. Mixed group/ Juruna. Only a few families remain of these Tupi-speaking fishermen-cultivaters of the Upper Xingu. Male group: FTX-782- Ucayali River. The Conibo are a small tribe renowned for pottery and textile design. This mixed group, led by male with drum accompani-ment, gives a typically diffuse performance/ - E. Brazil. Cayapo manioc planters and hunter-fishers Male group, stamping/ E. Brazil, Kraho/ S. America, Jivaro. A shaman, trying to determine whose magic is responsible for the death of a child, sings of his power: FTX-783 - N.E. Kraho. This dawn song begins slowly and heavily, but quickens until at sunrise a powerful sound fills the plaza of the clan-organized, complementary village: FTX-784 - Interior Amazonia. Jivaro. A woman's love song/ One constant theme of aboriginal life in game-poor Amazonia is the dependence of women on their hunter mates; here a woman laments her husband's departure/ Xingu River, Shukarramai. Fishing and gardening and clan organized villages/ Interior Amazonia, Amahuaca. The banana-festival dance of this tribe, who live in tiny homesteads scattered through the mountainous jungle. Male group/ Interior Amazonia, Conibo. The women of this fishing tribe wail over a corpse. Later, custom demands the body be sealed up in an old canoe and hidden in the jungle. Female group: FTX-786 - A Jivaro man sings that his wife has brewed chicha (alcohol) and invites his friends (Head-hunting allies) to drink. Note yodeling/ The Jivaro live in dispersed, single-family habitations and, since the men spend much of their time in pursuit of game and heads, the women are often alone, dreaming and longing for their lovers, as in this song. Male solo: FTX-787 - A Jivaro woman sings to the lover who must serve her father for a long period before he can marry her. Big intervals, melisma and glissando/ Caraja, a riverine fishing tribe. Here masked male dancers entice the young women to follow them down the sand spit, singing in the low register common in this region. Male solo/ The Kraho are complementary gardeners who dwell in big.segmented villages and stage daily rehearsals of ritual dance and song. Mixed chorus and rattle in parallel polyphony: FTX-788 - Jivaro. A woman sings about the loss of her lover. Female solo: FTX-789 - Tukuna (Upper Amazon) boys & girls - Trunai (Xingu river) 90-014 A3/6/B3/12 Shukarrami (Xingu) - Caraja masked male dancers 90-016 B2/2 - HUNGARIAN Nopraje Ethno Museum 1966 Matto Gross (flute) cassette - Bahia L-13 LIB OF CONGRESS - Black Music of S America NONESUCH H-72036 - Renato BORGHETTI (3-row acc) rec Rio Grande do Sul 1990: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - - Sergio CUEVAS (harp) rec by PK, London 30/3/63: RTR-0405-6/ ARION 30-T-131 - BRAZOS FILMS: "ROOTS OF TEX-MEX MUSIC "Chulas Fronteras" & "Del Mero Corazon" two films by Les Blank & Chris Strachwitz: BF-DVD (video) 104 2003

BRITTANY - see also under FRANCE -- WESTMINSTER WL 5334 1954 (unacc dance song)/ World Festival Biarritz & Pamplona 1951: FTX-610 - COLUMBIA SL 207 1952 France - ANCHE LIBRE (Dastum cassette) 1987 acc players transcr in book by Bernard LASBLEIZ) - CASS-0056 - A L Lloyd "The Celtic World - Sound of the Voice" Radio 8/210/68: CASS-0614 - FONTANA 6399-008 9101-500 1975 & 6325-304 1973 Alain STIVELL "from Celtic Roots" - MODELLO 1979 Kesty "Breton Dance" - MOUEZ-BREIZ 33523 Goodec sisters of Carhaix (unacc incl song-dance) - 45-111 Catherine GUERN/ Laeiz ROPARS of Poullaouen - 45-134 Jef PHILIPPE (bombarde) & Yannick ARESSE (biniou) - PHILIPS 6414-406 Alain STIVELL - Breton songs with fid: RTR-0468 - Alain STIVELL & GUARDIG Sisters RPL Radio 2 5/7/82: CASS-15-0754 - QUERTZ Breton Group at Sidmouth RPL Radio 2 10/8/88: CASS-90-0549 - Jacques BEAUCHAMP (3 row diatonic accordion): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

BULGARIA -- Rhodope chain dance involving a whole village (Raim & Koenig, B2/ Sofia Koledo (Christmas carol) by a trained city sextet, whose use of harmony may represent an urban innovation. Mixed group: FTX-781 - FTX-782 - S.E. Bulgaria, Thrace. The bridesmaid sings when the groom's party arrives to take the bride to church, in a zone where Near Eastern influence is strong. Female solo/ Thracian women can throw their voices for a mile across the plains; nowhere do women sing with more full-throated power than in this land, the legendary home of the Amazons: FTX-785 - As in much of old Europe, much work (and courtship) is done at evening working parties, where this riddling ballad was sung. Male solo/ A Bulgarian trained chorus with a koledarski- a pagan mid-winter song where the singer can offer praise or wish luck or health to the household/ Woman with gaida (one-drone bagpipe) and kaval (seven-hole flute) performing in the aksak (limping rhythm) common in the Middle East and Eastern Europe: FTX-786 - N. Bulgarian lament for Giorgi Dimitrov, the Bulgarian hero of the Reichstag fire scandal, played on the kaval (seven-holed shepherd's flute): FTX-787 - Sofia District. Four young girls go house to house round the village ritually singing in the spring: FTX-788 - - Sofia District. The clashing seconds, that figure so prominently in many of the field songs, help to carry the sound far. Actually, one of the many functions of such songs is to let the people of the village know that all is well with their women in a distant field. Three women: FTX-789 - Songs & Dances rec by Deben Bhattacharya: ARGO ZFB-47 1968 - Entertainment & dance prog BALKANTON 107 - S Bulgaria F/S & Instrum BALKANTON 214 - CANTOMETRICS - THE PENNYWHISTLERS NONESUCH H-72007 & 72024 - Village Music rec Ethel Raim & Martin Koenig: NONESUCH H-72034 & H 7-11 - coll & ed A L Lloyd: TOPIC 12-T-107 1964 - Nadia Karadjova: WOMAD TB-3 - LE MYSTERE DES VOIX BULGARES 4AD (with MADAGASIKANA) Diaphonic Chant incl talk about women's voices etc: cassetee dub by Chris Dabbs 1988 CASS-0061- National Sound Archive rec from 1930's of string orch with trumpet: Radio 2 Xmas Prog 30/12/87 CASS-0423-4 - Woman's Choir CASS-0034: - women singing in 2nds "Folk on 2" 28/4/88 CASS-90-1051 - Radio 2: 28/12/88: CASS-60-0547 - "Vocal Traditions of Bulgaria: Village songs from the archives of Radio Sofia SAYDISC CD-SDL-396 1992/ CD-1168 - Ivan KIRFEV (p-acc) with orchestra/ Traicho SINAPOV (p-acc) playing for wedding (from BALKANTON): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

BURMA - Classical piece about the strange and beautiful flowers of the forest, played on the pattala (xylophone) and flute: FTX-782 - Urban music with the distinctively humorous Burmese touch, performed by a vocally athletic male singer with oboe, flute, drum and gong frame (12 tuned gongs): FTX-784

BURUNDI -- OCORA OCR-40 Prizewinner 1968/ CASS-0121 9box) - WOMAD WEA-KG- 8045 Drums of Makebu - Drummers with ECHO & THE BUNNYMEN - TB2 Burundi girls & drummers

CAMBODIA -- EMI HLP 1 History of Music - Lullaby with instruments

CAMEROON -- OCORA OCR-25/ CASS-0126 (box)

CANADA - see also USA: American Indian - see also CAPE BRETON - Alan MILLS, Perry FRIEDMAN, Raoul ROY - see also GAELIC- AUNT MARY'S - BALLAD OF NEW SCOTLAND - BIG SHIP (GLISE DE SHERBROOK) - BOLD WOLFE - CANADIAN JIG - BUFFALO JUMP - BY THE HUSH, ME BOYS - CANADIEN ERRANT - COD LIVER OIL - EMMA JANE - FLUNKY JIM - GREEN FIELDS - JAM AT JERRY'S ROCKS - JAMIE JUDGE - JOLLY RAFTSMEN-O - JONES BOYS - LAKE OF THE CAOGAMA - LIFE IN A PRAIRIE SHACK - JIM DANDY - LONESOME SCENES AT WINTER - LOSS OF THE ELLEN MUNN - NOBLE LADS OF CANADA - OLD GRANDMA - PEGGY GORDON - PETER EMBELAY - POOR LITTLE GIRLS OF ONTARIO - SASKATCHEWAN - SHE'S LIKE THE SWALLOW - SHINING BIRCH TREE - SIR JOHN FRANKLIN - SQUID-JIGGING GROUND - THREE CROWS - TIME TO BE MADE A WIFE - TRANS CANADA HIGHWAY - WEE COCKSPARRA (Dunbar) - WOLFE - WON'T YOU COME TO ME IN CANADA? - French -- A LA CLAIRE FONTAINE - AUNT MARY'S CANADIAN JIG - DANSE DE CHEZ NOUS (jig) - FILLE DE L'AVOCAT - FRANCOIS MARCHE - HOTELIER - ISABEAU SE PROMENER - MON PERE IL M'A MARIE - PETIT CORDONNIER - RAFTSMEN - Douglas KENNEDY talks about tour of "The Folk Five" in 1928: FTX-481-493 (on FTX-491-2) - French Canadian farm girls leader & group/ A Caribou Eskimo shaman singing a magic nonsense chant to bring luck to the hunt. Male solo: FTX-781 - Newfoundland. A fisherman's dance song resembling the U.S. fiddle songs/ Cayuga. A Corn Dance song from the Iroquois eight nation confederacy . Male leader with male chorus and rattle: FTX-783 - Canadian Plains, Blood. The Grass Dance. a war song in the high-pitched, forceful style common among Amerindian hunters. Male chorus with drum/. A Nova Scotian remembers one of the comic British ballads her ancestors brought with them into the New World: FTX-784 - French Canada. Gaspe. Northern ballad of the kidnapped maiden/ French Canada fur-trappers paddled across the continent and back to such gay ballads. Male solo: FTX-785 - Alan MILLS (voc) accomp by Steve BENBOW (gtr): FTX-905 - RPL LP 24566 Perry FRIEDMAN (with banjo) 12s rec by PK, London 1958 - RPL LP 24697 Raoul ROY (with gtr) rec London 7/4/59 (in French) - LP 24896-7 Alan MILLS (Fr & Engl) accomp Steve BENBOW (gtr) rec London 15-17/6/59 - CHANT DU MONDE Epinette de Vosges incl A3 song from Canada "Un matin je me sis levee" (also on COLUMBIA) - COLUMBIA SL-211 World Lib (coll Marius Barbeau) incl Engl French Gaelic Indian & Eskimo/ CASS 0047 -ELEKTRA EKL-23 Nova Scotia Cape Breton - EMI CLP-1362 1960 Steve BENBOW "Paddy and the Whale" (coll Greenleaf Newfoundland) - CLP-1604 Jack LANGSTAFF - FOLKWAYS FE-4307 Maritime FS coll Helen Creighton Nova Scotia - FG-3531 1960 Jean CARIGNAN (fid/ clogger) Toronto taxidriver - FM-4006 F/M from Nova Scotia coll Helen CREIGHTON - Marie HARE (unacc singer) rec by Sandy Paton, Strathadon, NB, Canada 1961: FOLK LEGACY FSC-9 1962 - IAN (TYSON) & SYLVIA: VANGUARD VRS-9154 "The Northern Journey" - LEADER LEA-4057 1967 Edith Fowke coll 1957-1964/ CASS 0159 - LIBRARY OF CONGRESS L-6 Six Nations Reserve (Indians) - RCA VICTOR LEP-1020 Arcadie et Quebec (univ Laval 1950) - RIVERSIDE RLP-12-601 Ed McCURDY - SHENACHIE 14001 1978 Angus CHISHOLM (fid) with piano CASS-60-0971 - RODEO RLP-25/ CASS-0232 Waldo Thumbs MUNRO (Bar room piano) "Maritime House Party" (mainly Scottish) - TOPIC 12-T-140 1965 La Rena CLARK (Ontario) - TOPIC 12-TS-247 John KIRKPATRICK "Rose of Britain's Isle" (Newfoundland) - TOPIC 12-TS-353 1978 Gaelic trad in Cape Breton (songs/ fid) vol I/ CASS-0196 - TOPIC 12-TS-354 1978 (Vol 2) Fiddling - Linda DREW (v/gtr) rec CSH London 9/4/64 4'5"RTR-0409 "This Land of Ours" - CASS-0157 Arr by SANDY MOORE of Halifax NS with piano & other instruments - LA BOUTINE SOURIANTE (French-Canadian Band) incl fiddle & step-dancer rec Mariposa Festival: Radio 2 Xmas Prog 30/12/87 CASS-0423-4 - Dieppe Raid with Canadian Division 19/8/42 with commentator Frank GILLARD & others Radio 4 19/8/82: CASS 60-0628 - Jean CARIGNAN (Quebec fid) with Aly BAIN "Down Home" (TV Series) in USA & Canada LISMOR LIF-7011 1986 CASS 0814/ Also LA BOTTINE SOURIANTE (vocals/ band) with "L'Isle des Voyageurs" followed by Reel - "The Barra McNeil's" (Instr group from Nova Scotia): Radio 2: 19/10/88: CASS-15-0699 - Tom KINES: RCA Victor PC/PCS 1014 CASS-0233 & 1209 acc Russell THOMAS - Rufus GUINCHARD (fid) St John's Newfoundland "Humouring the Tunes" SING SONG SS-9091 1990 CASS-1214 - - Willie TAYLOR (fid), Joe HUTTON (N-pipes) & Will ATKINSON (harmonica) rec by Burt Feintuch 1994: SMITHSONIAN-FOLKWAYS SFW-40473 1999 "Danse de Chez Nous" & Aunt Mary's Canadian Jig" - Rejean SIMARD (Quebec 3-row diatonic accordion) & Raynald OUELLET (1 track each): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 - Rain Dance performed by George BUCK, "Red Jacket" & group with water-drum & horn rattle rec by National Film Coard, Grand River Reserve, Ontario: from World Library ed by Marius Barbeau/ ROUNDER CD 1700 1997

CAPE BRETON ISLAND - Nova Scotia, Canada -- ELEKTRA EKL-23 1955 10" - TOPIC 12-TS-353 1978 Gaelic song - 12-TS-354 vol 2 fiddling - Triona ni Donnell with RELATIVITY (incl Ham dulc) rec EBU Festival Denmark RPL Radio 2 13/1/88 CASS 0422 - Buddy McMASTER (fid)/ CAPE BRETON FIDDLERS/ Jerry HOLLAND (fid) with Aly BAIN "Down Home" (TV Series) in USA & Canada LISMOR LIF-7011 1986 CASS-0814

CAPE VERDE ISLANDS - with Portuguese & West African influences - Antonio SANCHES (voc) & Ishota SUARI (3-row acc) with "ferro" (rhythm iron): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

CARIBBEAN - ANGUILLA - ANTIGUA - ANTILLES - BAHAMAS CARRIACOU (Grenadine) - DOMINICA - GRENADA - GUADELOPE - JAMAICA - MARTINIQUE - NEVIS - St BATHELEMY - St KITTS - St LUCIA - TRINIDAD- CALPYSOS - DEEP BLUE SEA - FAN ME SOLDIER MAN - GRENADINE - GUANTANAMERA - JAMAICA FAREWELL - KISS ME O I LIKE IT - LET ME HOLD YOUR HAND - LIVERPOOL GIRLS - MATTIE RAG - SOLAS MARKET - WAKES IN THE MORNING - WHEN I DIE - WOMAN SWEETER THAN MAN - Bahamas: - Group of men from Andros Island rec by Alan Lomax, Nassau 1935 (Afro-Americans with overlap parts in a ballad about the loss of the vessel Praetoria, in a hurricane. Mixed group/ male group: FTX-781 - Carriacou sea peasants spontaneously join in on a little refrain that animates a traditional cante-fable or tale-with song/ Nevis men singing their version of a traditional British sea chanty as they row/ Grenada: A local Shango cult leader and her neighbors sing in overlapping, two-phrase unison, accompanied by drum and large rattle. Female solo and mixed group/ Carriacou polyrhythmic transformation of a conventional Protestant hymn. Mixed group/ Bongo dancing enlivens the nine-day wakes of Trinidad. Because drums were once legally out-lawed, the bongo rhythmic background is still performed on disposable bamboo strips. Male group accompanied on sticks: FTX-782 - Martinique mountain folk dasnce (bele) with three drums (the deeper drum in the lead) overlapping each other - a West Indian formula: FTX-783 - Trinidad. Toco. The singer may be exaggerating precise enunciation, free rhythm and especially tremolo to indicate the foreigness of this English folk lyric. Male solo/ St. Barthelemy. A lobster fisherman sings a flowery French lyric song typical of the 17th century survivals on this island. Male solo/ Bahamas. From Andros Island, a notably egalitarian and complementary culture, comes this standard hymn tune sung in the swinging anthem style of the sponge fishermen. Three men: FTX-785 - Martinique. Up in the hills, the small farmers maintain a strongly African pattern of life. Male leader with male chorus and three drums: FTX-786 - Martinique. An example of a West African two-phrase leader-re-sponse style/ Tobago. African hoe agriculture was continued in the Caribbean slave and cash-crop cultures, where, until lately, one and two-phrase melodic forms were dominant. The text hints that the mother is at work and a child is minding the baby: FTX-787 - Bahamas Andros Island funeral anthem as sung in parts an the sponge-fishing fleet. Three men. (Harmony)/ Trinidad where virile games and licentious pastimes, like this lewd bongo dance, are performed at wakes for the dead: FTX-788 - Trinidad. "The Tiger", a calypsonian star improvises a satirical portrait of a well known local character- the kind of song that might be employed in a battle of wit and improvisation between two calypso singers: FTX-789 - ARHOOLIE 1061 Joseph SPENCE & blues Guitar - LIB OF CONGRESS L-5 Cat Island & L-8 Cat Island & Nassau - NONESUCH H-7-11 2 tracks group & trio - POLYDOR 236-581 1969 rec Peter Siegel & Jody Stecher 1965 -- SOCIETY 919 1963 Roy GUEST "Bahaman Lullaby" - Sea Shanty Group with female lead and men in chorus rec by Alan Lomax, Aug 1962, La Fortune, St Patricks, Grenada/ Call and response song in French Creole, rec by Alan Lomax, Vieux Fort, St Lucia July 1962: ROUNDER 1700 1997 "Luce-O, Luce Mauvais" - Children rec by Alan Lomax 1962: ROUNDER CD-1716 1997 : ROUNDER 1700 1997 "Roll, roll, roll and go" - Dominica & children in Anguilla rec by Alan Lomax, 1962: ROUNDER CD-1716 1997 "Brown Girl in the Ring" - Christmas Album includes "The Red Ants" Group "The Motion Tune" rec by AL Gingerland, Nevis 1962: 1719 - Sampler of Caribbean: 1721 - "East Indian Music in the West Indies": 1722 - Antilles, St Lucia, St Vincent, Grenadines, Los Testigos, Tobago, Dominica: 1724 - Trinidad: 1725 - Funerary Music of Carriacou & Grenada: 1726 - Funerary Music of Carriacou (Grenadine): 1727 - Grenada: - Selection of Creole & Yoruba Voices: 1728 - Martinique: 1730, Nevis & St Kitts: incl Tea Meetings, Christmas Sports & The Moonlight Night: 1731 - Carriacou Dance: "The Lancers": RPL LP 25787 - Dominica Mummers Play: RPL LP 34508 - Edith PERRIN rec by Frank & Anne Warner, NYC 1941: APPLESEED APR-CD-1035 2000 - BRUTE FORCE Steel Band & Antigua Steel Bands - MERRYMAKERS Steel Band: RTR-0791 & 0793/ FTX-917 - Anon: West Indies rec RTR-0445/ cass: 0064 Radio 3 25/1/79: Reggae, Calypso & Folksongs - John PEARSE on "Calling the tune" Home Service #8 11/3/63 "Ol Lady masher me toe" - STEEL & SKIN (Steel pans & elec gtrs) rec by PK, Bristol July 1984: CASS 45-0641 - Extracts of "Freedom City" rec by PK, Student's Union, Bristol 23/7/82: CASS 60-0642 - Siano ARIAS (melodeon) with singers & bass rec 1989: ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 (Arias died 1995) - Jamaica: 4 instrumental items on message-size tape from Jamaica School of Music, Kingston 1956(?): 2"RTR-1189 Fiddle, rattles & e nsemble -West Indies rec RTR-0445 - CASS-0037 [Folkways] - CASS-0185 Jamaican Folksingers rec Bristol 1982 - CASS-0639-42 Bristol 1982 - EMI CLP-1500 1962 Cliff HALL of Spinners - FOLKWAYS P-453 rec Edgar Seagar - FONTANA STL-5431 1967 SPINNERS - STL-5495 1969 LIVERPOOL SPINNERS "Island Woman" - Veronica FERON (of St Annes Bay) rec by PK, Gloucester 13/8/90 "I am a little teapot" CASS-0037 - ELOISE TRIO: CASS-45-0639 - THE MERRYMEN: CASS 45-0640 - CASS-0641-0692 Colston Conference, Bristol JAMAICA FAREWELL - - Cliff HALL of SPINNERS on Radio 9/11/82: CASS-0407 "Mandy" -LIVERPOOL SPINNERS: EMI SCX-6493 1972 - Elda BLACKWOOD (of Jamaica) rec by Frank & Anne Warner, NYC USA 1947: APPLESEED APR-CD-1035 2000 "Two Little Blackbirds" & "Uncle Ned" - Trinidad & Tobago -- RPL 23930 rec by Ernest Eytle 1955 (also 18900 "shouters" dancing & 23644 popular songs (not in Lib) - CANTOMETRICS 90-016 A2/6 & 90-017 B1/4 Song about mother at work / CASS-0644-6 Bristol - NONESUCH H-7-11 (S) Highlife Steel Band - John PEARSE (voc/ gtr) "Calling the tune #8 6/3/63 ("Old Woman you") "Masher me toe" - WOMAD 002 Calypso "Loraine" at Carnival (mentions taxi to London Airport) also on CASS-0006 - West Indies broadcast items for PK incl Blind BLAKE "Delia": RTR-0445/ CD 945 - children in Trinidad rec by Alan Lomax, 1962: ROUNDER CD-1716 1997 - Cyprus SMITH & others with accomp on "croix-crois sticks" rec by Alan Lomax, Diego Martin, Trinidad 25/4/62: ROUNDER 1700 1997 -- Neville MARCANO, "Growling TIGER, & Lord Airey in Calypsi "Duel" with group & flute, fiddle & guitar, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad 1936: ROUNDER 1700 1997 "War" - Ram GOPAUL with sarangi (fiddle), tabla (drum) & dhantal (cymbals) rec by Alan Lomax, Charleville, Trinidad 6/5/62: ROUNDER 1700 1997 "Religious Bhajan" - St Barthelemy; ROUNDER CD-1822 1999



CATALONIA (Spain) - EL BALL DE BASTONS Centre de Promocio de la Cultura Catalunya Series 2/ Vol 2 CD 2001 - Josep VERDAGUER i Portet ROVIRETES EL FLABIOLAIRE Series 2/ Vol3 CD 2003 (Gifts of Angel Vallverdu, Stroud July 2004)


CHILE -- A Chilean narrative song performed in solo with the guitar in traditional Spanish style, but with Amer-indian touches in the big leaps, the irregular meter, and the one-beat feeling of the guitar. Male solo/ The old, 3-phrase, Castillian ballad style vigorously surviving in Chile. Female solo with guitar: FTX-787 - Margot Loyola with piano: RPL 22277 & 33352 - (22279/ 30420-1/ 32382 from Atacam desert area

CHINA - see also MONGOLIA - TIBET - Musical Instruments of the World: FTX-700 - A professional female soloist accompanied by a plucked lute and flute in a Chinese musical drama from Macao, Canton: FTX-783 - A work song for hauling barges through the rapids on the Yangtze: FTX-784 - Szechuan. The open-throated style of these all-too-rare S.W. Chinese work songs resembles that of Tibet and Mongolia and is a departure from the pinched-voice embroidery one usually hears from Chinese singers: FTX-785 - "Chinese High Moon", a piece of contemplative music from the Tang Dynasty (A.D. 618 - 906) played on nan hsiao (flute) and pip'a (lute) by two males. (Levy #3, B1): 787 - Tee Ping Liang playing "cheng" (banjo): rec London 21/6/58: (RPL 22841/ 26445-6/ 33102) - Canton theatre: 912 B1/10 Barge-hauling song on Yangtze River: 913 A4/17 - S Zechuan work song: 914 A2/6 High Moon piece on flute & lute: 915 B2/12 - History of Music Jeng/Chyn orch: EMI HLP-1 - "Chinese Bamboo Flute Music" (Shakuhachi) accomp by fiddle, gtr, percussion & synth Delta Music 1993 (licensed from TRADITION RECORDS): LASERLIGHT CD 12.183 Jing Ying from Hong Kong: (Cassette) SAYDISC CSDL 325 - Tiau Jin (song & dance group): WOMAD 1 1982 "raindrops pattering on banana leaves" - "The Very Best of Chinese Music" ("Oriental Cherry Happiness descending on the house") with Wang Zhangzhu (bipa), Zher Shangzhan (erhu) & Lin Zhangbi (piano): CHINA RECORD CO QL-9 1983/ CASS 1361 - 15-pipe "lusheng" (reed mouth organ) & another track of Zhang GUOPING (p-acc): ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995

COLOMBIA - South America -- Sylvia MOORE: FTX-137 - S.W. Poplayan Christmas music fiesta orchestras of flutes, panpipes and drums: FTX-781 - Colombia, Choco. Cholo Indians, deep in the rain forest, carriers of a diffusely-organized, pre-conquest culture, sounding a six-hole flute with maraccas and cymbals: FTX-783 - small tape of EL PATACORE (9'00) rec Sylvia Moore & Bernard Broere 1979: RTR-0450: FTX-938 - Pan-pipes Rio Guaviario: COLUMBIA SL 212 - Black Music rec by David Lewiston 1970: NONESUCH H-72036 - Toto la Momposina (Soledad): WOMAD 002 - cassette of S American 78rpm discs from Kitty Turner: CASS-0091/ BARCLAY 820 054 LOS CALCHAKIS incl Ecuador, Colombo, Peru, Argentine, Bolivia - Rafael OROZCO (voc) with Israel ROMERO (3-row acc) with bass & another track from Lisandro MEZA (acc) playing "Cumbia de las Locos": ELLIPSIS ARTS 3xCD "Planet Squeezebox" 1995 (Vallenato music)

COOK ISLANDS -- CANTOMETRICS 90-011 A1/26 Male & female groups - 90-017 A1/30 Puka-puka (W Polynesia)

CORSICA --The rugged hills have protected many ancient Mediterranean traditions, among them battles of poetic improvisation where local poets spontaneously rhapsodise on assigned themes. This one begins in Virgilian style. "Waken, O my muse, do your best for me". Embellished male solo: FTX-786 - COLUMBIA SL-207/ 615


CZECH REPUBLIC & SLOVAKIA:-- Vlaxi Rom European gypsies FTX-608 - World Instruments FTX-700 - Moravia. Traditional shepherd flute polyphony: FTX-781 - Slovakia. wind and string ensemble: FTX-782 - Klenovec, near Bratislava, bowed lutes and cymbaloms, playing flowing counter-rhythms/ West Moravia (Iglau). A traditional village string ensemble from the part of Europe that gave rise to the symphony orchestra: FTX-783 - W. Bohemian peasant girls' choir with a string orchestra (bass in lead) collaborate in heterophony/ Slovakia. A flageolet solo in shepherd style: FTX-787 - Slovakia, Hrcava village. A wide-voiced male loudly declaims a wordy song: FTX-788 - Songs & dances rec by Deben Bhattacharya: ARGO ZFB-59 1972 / SPA-212 sampler - Moravian folksongs & dances ARTIA ALP-153 - Zatiovne a dozienkove piesne SUPRAPHON 0-89-9878 (7"EP)

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