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EMBELLISHMENT (23) - Much embellishment in song predicts stratified hierarchies of caste, class, and/or state-organized systems. It is also highly correlated with hand movement in the dance.

01. Introduction. Extreme. Middle East. Azerbaijani have inhabited the East Caucasus since ancient times and continue the highly embellished style typical of the centralized, masculine-dominated empires of the East. Male solo with strings. (Russia. #1, C4) - 0'36"

02. Extreme. Central Asia, Mongolia, Darhatg a culture with the layered, patriarchal, male-dominated pattern of many large-scale pastoral states. (Vargyas, D3) - 0'30"

03a. Extreme. South Asia, India, Raga, (see Line 16, Test #8). As usual, one finds extreme embellishment in the music of the upper class in a caste- and class-organized society. (Asch #2 A2) & 3b. Little or none. West Europe, England, Durham. A widely-known British children's song. Female solo. (Seeger & McColl, A4). - 0'45"

04. Extreme. Repeat of #3a. - 0'29"

05. Much. East Europe, S.E. Bulgaria, Thrace. The bridesmaid sings when the groom's party arrives to take the bride to church, in a zone where Near Eastern influence is strong. Female solo. (Lloyd #1, B 23) - 0'31"

06. Medium. Micronesia, Palau, Western Carolines. A song for entertainment at old-style gatherings. Female solo. (Smith, Barbara, 2) - 0'31"

07. Slight. South Europe, S. Portugal, Algarve. The old calendrical, groupy songs of Europe, such as this ' Janeiras' or year-end carol for January lst, often lack embellishment. Male solo. (Graca & Giacometti, C9) - 0'35"

08. Little or none. Repeat of #3b - 0'42"

09. Extreme. Repeat of #1 - 0'31"

10. Test #1. East Asia, Japan. A farm woman's song from a rigidly stratified society. (See Line 10, Test 10). (Masu, A 8)

11. Test #2. The Balkans, Albania, Gegs. A woman of this fiercely independent, but stratified, mountain-shepherd society sings a nina-nana, or lullaby. (Lloyd #2, A3) - 0'36"

12. Test #3. Central Europe, Germany, Swabia. A teasing dialogue of courtship set to a widely-known German folk tune. Male solo. (Wiora, D6) - 0'36"

13. Test #4. Middle East, Eurds. War-like Moslem mountain farmer herders with an ancient heritage of Oriental civilization. Male solo. (Solecki, B 3) - 0'29"

14. Test #5. Southern U.S.A., Arkansas. The best known U.S. lullaby (to a tune composed by J.J. Rousseau). Female solo. (Lomax #16, A8) - 0'34"

15. Test #6. N. Australia, Arnhemland aborigines. The old men, who ritually controlled the clans, made the initiation into ritual expertise a long-drawn-out process, which gave rise to enormously elaborated musical and choreographic traditions. (Elkin #2, 15.2) - 0'33"

16. Test #7. West Europe, N. Spain, Asturias, where the Spanish kings mounted their wars against the Moors and where undreds of such brief and exquisitely ornamented songs were created. Male solo. (Lomax #24) - 0'50"

17. Test #8. West Europe, France, Gascony, D'Artagn@s home. Such venders' songs have always enlivened Mediterranean city streets. (Marcel-Dubois & Andral, B1) - 0'40"

18. Test #9. South Asia, India. Raga, (see Line 15, #1). - 0'35"

19. Test # 10. South Europe, Spain, Castile. In this lullaby the mother asks the child to go gently to sleep, like a rose-bud on a rosebush. Female solo. (Lomax #24, B 4a) - 0'50"

TESTS - 1. Extreme/ 2. Medium/ 3. Little or none/ 4. Much/ 5. Slight/ 6. Medium/ 7. Extreme/ 8. Little or none/ 9. Much/ 10. Slight

GLOTTAL (31) - Marked use of glottal especially characterises the singing of cultures where the main productive activities are male and predatory as among the reindeer nomads of Siberia and the horsemen of Central Asia.

20. Introduction. Middle East, Iran. A fragment of a rhapsodic mystic chant by the poet Araqi, superbly sung and oirnamented by Zabihi. (Danielou #1, B2) - 026"

21. Glottal. Central Asia, Mongolia. Dorzhdagva, a famous singer with a three-octave range, pours out strings of glottalized nonsense syllables in a heightening of Arctic Asian style. (Vargyas, A3) - 0'29"

22. Much. South Europe, Balearics, Iviza. Formal glottal ornamentation, unique in West Europe is the hallmark of traditional song in this former Carthaginian outpost. Like their forebearers, Ivizians devote their lives to the sea. Female solo with drum. (Lomax #20, A10) - 0'37"

23. Some. North America, French Canada. Gaspe. Light glottal strokes ornament this northern ballad of the kidnapped maidim. (Barbeau #2, A12) - 0'39"

24. Little or no. North America, Virginia Mountains. Ballad with male solo and guitar (Lomax 8, A1) - 0'44"

25. Much. East Asia, N. Japan, Ainu. A paleo-Siberian aboriginal woman performs in the noisy, glottally decorated, nonsense, solo style that dominates Arctic Asian singing. (Kondo) - 0'26"

26. Test #1. East Asia, Korea. (See Line 25, test #6) - 0'30"

27. Test #2. Europe, Spain. Estremadura, where. as in Asturias, N. Italy, French Canada and the Orkneys, ballads are normally performed in chorus. Four village girls. (Lomax #Z6, B12) - 0'31"

28. Test #3. Central Asia. Nomadic Tibetan traders dance in a linked line, singing this one-phrase melody. Male chorus. Bourguignon, A2) - 0'35"

29. Test #4. West Africa. A Bafut lad sings with the breath-softened resonance black singers often employ. (Ritzenthaler, A3) - 0'33

30. Test #5. The Balkans, Bulgaria. Thracian women can throw their voices for a mile across the plains; nowhere do women sing with more full-throated power than in this land, the legendary home of the Amazons. (Lloyd #1, B2) - 0'56"

31. Test #6. South-east Asia, S.W. China, Szechuan. The open-throated style of these all-too-rare S.W. Chinese work songs resembles that of Tibet and Mongolia and is a departure from the pinched-voice embroidery one usually hears from Chinese singers. (Menegoz, B12) - 0'34"

TESTS - 1. Much glottal/ 2. Little or no/ 3. Some/ 4. Little or no/ 5. Much/ 6. Some

TREMOLO (30) - Tremolo, like glottal, seems to be more frequent at high latitudes where there is winter and in cultures where males carry the main productive burden.

32. Introduction. Two snatches of tremolo - 0'19"

33. Repeat of #32 - 0'30"

34. Much, Middle East, Turkey. The Barzani Kurd are fiercely independent and warlike mountaineer-farmers and shepherds. The singer's long ornamented phrases are produced from a tense throat and a rigid body. Male solo. (Solecki, B 6) - 0'35"

35. Some. Afro-American, Trinidad. Toco. The singer may be exaggerating precise enunciation, free rhythm and especially tremolo (which is not an outstanding trait of black West Indian style), to indicate the foreigness of this English folk lyric. Male solo. (Lomax #36, 11) - 1'00"

36. Little or no. French West Indies, St. Barthelemy. A lobster fisherman sings a flowery French lyric song typical of the 17th century survivals on this island. Male solo. (Lomax #36, 1) - 0'59"

37. Test #1. Afro-America. Mississippi mule-skinners, working on the levees, sang about their hard and danger-filled lives in such vocally varied, Rpa, embellished long phrased cadences-an old African praise song pattern. Male solo. (Lomax #14, B2) - 0'40"

38. Test #2. North America, Arkansas. A contrast is the bouncing jollity of this 'funny' ballad- with its implications about mixed marriages. Female solo. (Lomax #16, A4) - 0'24"

39. Test #3. W. Europe, Orkney Islands. A bawdy love song. Male solo. (See Line 17p #3) (Kennedy & Lomax #4 A-47) - 0'40"

40. Test #4. North America. French Canadian fur-trappers paddled across the continent and back to such lively ballads. Male solo. (Barbeau # 1, A 10) - 0'29"

41. Test #5. Afro-America, Georgia. A spiritual dialogue between death and the sinner -as in a medieval mystery play. Female solo. (Lomax #1, A5) - 0'51"

42. Test #6. C. Europe, German enclave in Hungary. A medieval ballad about a girl who saves her brother from hanging by running nine times naked round the gallows. Female solo. (Wiora, D1) - 0'46"

GLISSANDO (28) - A high level of glissando tends to be more frequent among complex producers, especially those that employ irrigation. It is also correlated with smooth movement in the dance.

43. Introduction. Melanesia. Admiralties, Manus. This sea-going, fishing and trading community was masculine in orientation and the position of women was low. Here a Manus woman sings a snatch of a lullaby. (Schwartzy 10) .(No pa~,before #2) - 0'43"

44. Gliss. MiddleEast, Azerbaijan S.S.R. Female solo with lute. (Russia.#1,C3) - 0'31"

45a. Maximal. Middle East, Azerbaijan S S R The quintessence of the florid style of Middle Eastern fine-art song from a highly stratified, irrigation economy. (Russia. #11 C2) & 45b. Little or no. W. Europe, Scotland. A randy 'diddling' (dance) tune in the plain style of the small farmers and herders of N. Europe, Male solo. (Lomax #33, A14) - 1'09"

46. Maximal. Repeat of #45a. - 0'33"

47. Prominent. E. Africa, Watutsi. Another bard (this one from a black absolute monarchy) declaims a hunting song. Male solo. (Verwilghen #Z, A6) - 0'34"

48. Some. C. Europe, N.W. Spain. Galicia has a Celtic musical culture with bagpiping, tunes like jigs, and cohesive choruses. (Lomax #23, A8) - 0'19"

49. Little or None. (Repeat of #44b) Scotland. N. Europeans, like other sub-Arctic people, danced to such 'chin music' before the advent of bagpipe and fiddle. (Lomax #33,A14) - 0'51"

50. Test #1. Melanesia, S. Papua, Kuni. Low volume, parallel chords and gliss are distinctive of this musical enclave, which may be pre-Melanesian. Mixed group. (Elkin & Dupeyrat #7, B32) - 0'27"

51. Test #2. C. Europe# Poland. A modern village chorus performing an old comic ballad about farm animals. Mixed group. (Poland, B2) - 0'52"

52. Test #3. N. America, S. W, Navaho. In the squaw dances outside a hogan during a curing ceremony, the girls approach the men. Male chorus. (McAllester & Brown, B6b) - 0'53"

53. Test #4. S. Europe, Central Sicily. A sulphur miner's song, expressing the Sicilians eternal torment over love and over the misery of life in a land which suffered under oppressive rulers for 2000 years. Male solo with jaw's harp. (Lomax & Carpitella #29, B28) - 0'24"

54. Test #5. Central Europe, Germany, Emsland. Children, going from house to house for gifts on Martinmas Day, sing the familiar children's descending minor third cadence. (Wiora, B6b) - 0'35"

55. Test #6. South Europe, Greece. A song in the epic style of the heroic klefts, the patriotic Greek mountaineers who struggled against Turkish rule for centuries. The florid manner is one more sign that Greece, like most of the southern Mediterranean, is culturally affiliated to the Middle East. Male solo with lute. (Notopoulos #2, A6) - 0'29"

56. Test #7. W. Europe, C. Norway, Telemark. A fragment of an epic song about the hero, Roland, whose trumpet blasts 'burst walls as far away as nine day's travel.' Female solo. (Norway #1, B8)

57. Test #8. Central Asia. The Kalmyk were mounted warriors and cattle herders of the steppes west of the Volga, a land where such heroic songs once flourished. Male solo. (Russia. #7, 6) - 0'57"

TESTS - 1. Maximal/ 2. Little or no/ 3. Some/ 4. Prominent/ 5. Little or no/ 6. Maximal/ 7. Little or no/ 8. Prominent


58. Introduction. C Europe - a snatch of the Bach B minor Mass - female solo. Bach #1- 0'42"

59. Melisma. SouthEurope-a snatch of Gregorian chant-male solo. (Sachs) & 59b. NorthAfrica-a snatch of a Moroccan Sephardic song. (Bowles,D1) - 0'55"

60a. Much. MiddleEast, Hebrew. A cantor performing a prayer forYom Kippur. Note the stylistic continuity with the above four examples. These cases are typical of the cultural contexts in which marked melisma seems most frequent- relatively advanced socio-economies where productive components (irrigation, herding of large domestic animals) foster masculine dominance. Melisma may be a placatory signal, in that it so often enters communication where a person in a powerful position is being addressed. Male solo. (Cowell #1, B3) & 60b. Little or no. North Europe, Scotland, Hebrides. A piece of Gaelic mouth music about drinking and courting, in a culture where women have an equal and independent status and feel free to sing about feminine sexuality. (Lomax #33, B34) - 0'38"

61. Much. Repeat of #60a. - 0'47"

62. Some. South Europe, Portugal. Christmas carol. Mixed group. (Boulton #2, B3) - 0'38"

63. Little or no. Repeat of #60b - 0'23"

64. Much. Northwest Europe, Norway. Cattle herding preceded plough agriculture in N.W. Europe. When the men were away fishing or raiding, Norwegian dairymaids used such calls in herding the cattle. Female solo. (Norway #l, B 6a) - 0'48"

65. Some. Melanesia, New Guinea, Butala Region. Male + hourglass drum. (Sheridan. A Sb) - 1'01"

66. Little or no. Afro-America, Bahamas. From Andros Island, a notably egalitarian and complementary culture, comes this standard hymn tune sung in the swinging anthem style of the sponge fishermen. Three men. (Charters, A6) - 0'40"

67. Test #1. East Africa, Madagascar. A healing song from a highly stratified culture. With a female soloist, gunshots, two overlapping choirs, men yodeling, hand clapping and much ornamentation. (Schaeffner & Rouget, B1) - 0'36"

68. Test #2. W Africa. The Malinke are millet farmers, who built an empire and whose 'praise songs,' like this, may be one origin-point of the blues. Male solo + harp. (Schaeffner & Rouget, A14) - 0'40"

69. Test #3. Europe, N. Spain, Santander. In a pastoral village in the Pyrenees, shepherd girls sing one of the love songs traditional on the local saint's day. Female group. (Lomax #24, B8) - 1'06"

70. Test #4. E. Asia, Japan. A fisherman's song accompanied by shakuhachi (flute) in the pattern of the male-dominated, authoritarian Far East. Free rhythm, rather long phrases, heavy ornamentation. (Masu, A2) - 0'40"

71. Test #5. Malaysia, Central Borneo, Dusun. A Young woman of these jungle rice agriculturalists addresses the recordist. 'If you get our music back to your country, you will never forget us.' (Polunin #2, B6) - 0'15"

72. Test #6. C. Europe, S.E. Poland. A typical village orchestra of fiddles, bass and clarinet, playing a figure dance as the singer calls out: "Play faster, I'm not crippled.' (Poland, B6) - 0'24"

TESTS - 1. Much/ 2. Litt;e or no/ 3. Some/ 4. Much/ 5. Some/ 6. Little or no

ENUNCIATION (37) - Precise enunciation is common in cultures with a large population and a powerful government, while slurring is typical of small, acephalous societies. The relative clarity of enunciation seems to relate to the power of the political authority with which culture members have to deal: weak/slurred; strong/precise.

73. Very Precise. Central Asia. A Mongolian saga singer from a stratified, maledominated, pastoral society accompanying himself on the bowed lute, rhapsodising about the Gobi Desert. Male solo. (Vargyas, C1) - 0'23"

74. Very Slurred. S. Africa. A Bushman giraffe-magic song that came to an old medicine woman in a dream. She sings it with two of her cronies. (Marshall, A4) - 0'23"

75. Very Precise. Europe, Spain. A Basque bersolari (poet) improvising a new verse- an asymmetrical 8-phrase strophe in irregular meter. (Lomax #21, B10) - 0'25"

76. Very Slurred. N. America, Plateau, Flathead. An Owl Dance Song with nonsense syllables, large intervals, irregular meters, cascading phrases - a characteristic combination among the non-stratified, hunting tribes of the Americas. (Merriam #2, A8) - 0'28"

77. Precise. N. Europe, Mouth music from the very rank- and lineage-conscious Hebridian culture. Male duet. (See Line 35, #22) (Hitchcock, A3) - 0'22"

78. Moderate. W. Africa, Dahomey. A choir of women sing of the greatness and warlike prowess of one of the kings of Abomey. The accompaniment is a calabash hung with strings of cowries and snake vertebrae. (Duvelle #1, 3) - 0'44"

79. Slurred. North Mexico. A man performs the Deer Dance, which links these hunters to their most important game; accompanied on a notched scraper, sticks and water drum. (Yurchenco, B2) - 0'27"

80. Very Slurred. Repeat of #76 - 0'31".

81. Test #1. S.E. Asia, Thailand. Male solo, accompanied by wooden blocks, the repartee concerns proper dress and comportment in a highly urbanized and stratified society. (Kaufman, A6) - 0'34"

82. Test #2. Australia, Arnhemland aborigines. A repetitious male solo with stick accompaniment from a small, nomadic, non-stratified, acephalous band of Stone Age gatherers. (Hiatt, B1) - 0'46"

83. Test #3. C. Asia. The Kalmyk lived as sizeable bands of semi-nomadic cattle herders, feudally organized under khans. (See also Line 28, #18) Male solo. (Russia #7, 4) - 0'41"

84. Test #4. Afro-America, Mississippi prison. The major American black experience was of powerless, politically unstructured groups. Male group with axes. (Lomax #14, B4) - 0'51"

85. Test #5. S. Europe, Crete. A highly embellished, wordy, male, solo complaint from an ancient, complex, urbanized and stratified culture. (Llewellyn-Smith, A1) - 0'35"

86. Test #6. C. Africa, Babenzele Pygmy. A well-blended, interlocked, poly-parted chorus from a small, acephalous, egalitarian, complementary, nomadic, band-organised, gathering culture, singing with wide voices, large intervals and much repetition. (Didier & Rouget #19 B1) - 0'50"

87. Test #7. C. Europe, Lithuania. The common East European ballad of the girl, advised by her lover to poison her too-possessive brother- from a peasant village. Female solo. (Balys, B6)- 0'43"

88. Test #8. W. Europe, Ireland. A tradition of solo, wordy, ornamented, free-rhythmed, melodically complex songs from a centralized, male-orientedy plough and cattle economy, once a land of high kings and bards. (Ennis & Lomax, A 13) - 0'31"

89. Test #9. Melanesia, E. Papua, Orokaiva. A well-blended, wide-voiced male chorus, singing repetitiously in large intervals, a non-stratified, acephalous, tribal permissive, complementary, horticultural society. (Elkin & Dupeyrat #7, B7) - 0'29"

90. Test #10. Afro-America, Georgia. A topical ballad, from the black folk South, about the sinking of the Titanic in 1912, sung in blended harmony by a female leader and mixed group with guitar. (Lomax #4, A1) -

TESTS: 1. Very precise/ 2. Very slurred/ 3. Moderate/ 4. Slurred/ 5. Precise/ 6. Very slurred/ 7. Precise/ 8. Very precise/ 9. Slurred/ 10. Moderate

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