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01. Introduction. Central Asia, Mongolia. Professional folk musicians perform a modern song. Female group with yetah (zither). (Vargyas, D11) - 1'17"

02. Rhythmic Heterophony. South America, Interior Amazon, Ucayali River. The Conibo are a small tribe of complementary jungle fishers and gardeners, renowned for pottery and textile design. This mixed group, led by male with drum accompaniment, gives a typically diffuse performance. (Tschopik, B10) - 0'51"

03. Rhythmic Unison. Central Europe, Hungary. This is a slow czardas dance tune in complex 7/8 meter, performed in unison by a male singer and fiddle. (Hungary, #2) - 0'47"

04. Accompanying Rhythm. Ladino, a Judeo-Spanish love song by a professional male singer accompanied by flutey strings and tuned drums. (Stambler, A 1) - 0'51"

05. Rhythmic Counterpoint. S.E. France, Auvergne. A lullaby in languedoc (an early form of French known as "Occident"), sung by a cultivated female soloist with oboe accompaniment. (Gesser, B7) - 0'57"

06. Polyrhythm. Mexico, Oaxaca, Mixtec, pre-Columbia shifting cultivators of maize. Here a male soloist accompanies himself on a three-string tortoise-shell guitar. (Stanford #2, A2) - 0'52"

07. Phythmic Heterolphony. S. Asia, Manipur, Meithei. A priestess in this irrigation, caste-organized, yet complementary society sings a hymn to the Earth Mother, accompanied by a pena (bowed lute) in a voice remarkably close to Rumanian doina style. (Lightfoot, A 1) - 0'41"

08. Rhythmic Unison. E. Europe, Russia. An art song about Stenka Razin, the peasant revolutionary, performed by the Soviet Army male ensemble with string orchestra accompaniment. (Russia #3, side 22, #4) - 0'48

09. Accompanying Rhythm. U.S.A. The Arkansas school-teacher, folk balladeer, Jimmy Driftwood, sings one of the many songs about true-love-triumphing-over-cruelparents, with guitar and bass accompaniment. (Driftwood, B2) - 0'34"

10. Rhythmic Counterpoint. E. Asia. A professional female soloist accompanied by a plucked lute and flute in a Chinese musical drama from Macao, Canton. (China, B2) - 0'43"

11. Polyrhythm. C. Africa. The Luo are complementary, Nilotic terrace farmers with cattle and milking. A virtuojo-Luo bard improvises a topical songy accompanied by an eight string lyre. (Tracey #i(TR-168 B21) - 1'08"

12. Test #1. N. America, Southwest, Navaho. One of the most extraordinary items in the highly developed artistic and ceremonial life of this matrilineal and complementary culture is the Night Chant, part of a nine-day initiation rite for adolescents. Male singers with rattles. (Rhodes #3, B1) - 0'42"

13. Test #2. C. Europe, S. Germany. Wurttemburg. A comic surrealist, peasant dance song for mixed group and brass band. (Wiora, D8) - 0'31"

14. Test #3. Afro-America, Mississippi Delta. The classic 12-bar blues performed in rock styley with a charac:reristically complex African relationship of guitar and harmonica. (Lomax #131 A6) - 0'48"

15. Test #4. C. Europe, Germany. Comparison of this famous Weill "jazz' number to the preceding blues shows that Europeans did not at first comprehend the organisational principles of black music. Female solo with strings, winds, horns and percussion accompaniment. (Lenya) - 0'53"

16. Test #5. S. Asia, W. Bengal. A morning raga, part of an erudite system of themes for improvisation. Legend tells of how a night raga, played at the wrong hour, brought darkness at noon. Narrow voiced, embellished male solo with bowed lute, sitar, flute and drum accompaniment. (India #3, A1) - 0'41"

17. Test #6. S. Europe, Italy, Puglia. A lyric serenade sung by a worker accompanied by guitar. (Lomax (& Carpitella :#29, A9) - 0'40"

18. Test #7. E. Europe, Russia. An operatic solo from Prince Igor performed by Chaliapin with a complex orchestra accompaniment. Opera style is characterized by wordiness, precision, loudness, tremolo and maintenance of a single wide-voiced vocal stance. (Cowell #1, B6) - 0'37"

19. Test #8. S. Europe, S. Spain. A Murician parrando (gay dance) sung with instrumental voice (narrow, hard, nasal, loud) with guitar and clappmg, from an area where Moorish culture once flourished. (Lomax #19, B8) - 1'06"

20. Test #9. E. Africa, S. Sudan. The Pari are semi-nomadic, Nilotic, cattle and cereal cultivators, organized in loose confederacies with informal age-grade associations. Male singer with mixed chorus and long horn. This case can be heard in two ways (Carlisle #3, 1) - 0'31"

21. Test #10. Repeat of #1 - 1'48"

TESTS - 1. Accompanying/ 2 Uinison/ 3. Polyrhythm/ 4. Counterpoint/ 5. Heterephony/ 6. Accompanying/ 7. Counterpoint/ 8.Polyrhythm/ 0. Heterophony/ 10 Unison

THE RHYTHMIC CO-ORDINATION OF THE ORCHESTRA (9) - No correlations have been tested for this scale.

21. (cont.) N. America, New York City, a group in the Cantometric lab acting out 'musical chaos' - 0'37"

22. Little or none. C. America, Guna, Araquia. Cuna culture, a link between Mayan and Andean upland traditions, is still very much alive today in matriarchally-organized families and in elaborate ceremonies of female initiation where long, mythological epics and panpipe and horn music play a central part. Here six men dance in a circle, blowing long, plain bamboo pipes, with two panpipe players on the sidelines. (Taylor & Moser, 3, A5) - 0'37"

23.Mimimal. S. America, Peru, Junin, Santiago. Violin, trumpet and drum sound their separate excitement to spur on the work of the harvest in the delightful disunion that is one of the charms of the aboriginal and mestizo music of the region. (Peru, 10) - 0'39"

24. Moderate. Mexico, Morelos. Tlayacapan town band of 18 men (trumpets, trombones, saxophones, bass fiddles, drum, cymbals) blast out the carnival music for the masked, transvestite male 'chinelos' dancers. (Warman, A-middle section) - 0'35"

25. Unified. N. America, Galax, Virginia. Blue Grass, the tightly synchronized 'square dance music in overdrive' that is the Southern Appalachian reaction to urban industrialization. The orchestration of fiddle, five-string banjo, mandolin, guitar and bass matches the five piece New Orleans hot jazz band. (Lomax #12, A2) - 0'34"

26. Maximal. Indonesia, Bali. The precisely meshed counterpoint of the gamelon gong orchestra mirrors the carefully coordinated social organization essential to the irrigation systems on which Indonesian food supply depends. (Berthe A3) - 1'09"

27. Test #l. C. Europe, Russia. One of the modern state balalaika orchestras swirls through a traditional Russian folk dance. Strings. (Russia:#2 A5) - 0'29"

28. Test #2. Melanesia,Solomon Islands, Malaita. A modern ceremonial panpipe orchestra - six instruments - organized in pairs, one playing 1, 3, 5, 7, the other - 2, 4, 6, 8 - in three-part polyphony, each part doubled at the octave. (Zemp #1, A3) - 0'26"

29. Test #3. S. America, Peru, Junin. The lively orchestral traditions of the Andes are reminders of Peru's imperial past. In some cases the instrumentation and the melodies have survived. Here, it is the ambiance, the ensemble, which is clearly native, even though the musical material is Hispanic. (Peru, 12) - 0'59"

30. Test #4. N. America, New York City. A fragment of "Blues for Planet Earth", composed by Roswell Rudd and played by four trumpets, four trombones, five saxophones, clarinet, drums and bass. (Rudd) - 0'32"

31. Test #5. E. Asia. Korean classical An Ahk ('neat and orderly') music, composed in 1450 for ceremonial and state occasions, played on a range of instruments of wood, metal and stone, representing the sounds of nature. (Park, B11) - 0'30"

32. Test #6. E. Europe, Sloyakia near Bratislava, Klenovec. A bevy of bowed lutes and cymbaloms, playing the flowing counter-rhythms so loved in this part of Europe. (Czechoslovakia #1, A1) - 0'27"

33. Test #7. E. Europe, Latvia. Subate dance, played by a wind ensemble employing a concert hall technique.(Russia #1) - 0'28"

34. Test #8. C. Europe. Italy. A Piedmont cattle herd, each cow with its own tuned bell, the leader swinging the biggest of them, sways up the path to summer pasture in the Alps. (Lomax & Carpitella: #31, A1) - 0'24"

35. Test #9. Africa, Upper Volta. These two Bambara farmers journey hundreds of miles every year to play their xylophones at the king's palace; the bells on their wrists jingle. (Duvelle #1, A3) - 0'45"

36. Test #10. S. America, Colombia, Choco. Cholo Indians, deep in the rain forest, carriers of a diffusely-organized, pre-conquest culture, sounding a six-hole flute with maraccas and cymbals. (Chapelle & Marion, B6) - 0'54"

TESTS - 1. Maximal/ 2. Unified/ 3. Moderate/ 4. Little or none/ 5. Minimal/ 6. Moderate/ 7. Maximal/ Little or none/ 9. Unified/ 10. Minimal

THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE ORCHESTRAL GROUP (3) - No correlations have been tested on this scale.

37. Solo. Melanesia, Torres Strait. A plaintive melody on the notched flute from the sea-going, cannibalistic Papuans who occupied the archipelago between New Guinea and Australia. (Beckett & West #1, B2a) - 0'29"

38. Series of Solos. South Asia, S. India, Kerala. An ancient type of TamiI orchestra; a musical bow hung with brass bells, Two-pitchers slapped with fiber pads, a small hour-glass drum, cymbals and clappers. (Levy #1, B1) - 0'46"

39. Simple Group. Central Asia, Turkestan. A flute and drum piece that resembles the traditional flute music of Sicily. (Danielou #3, A3) - 0'36"

40. Disco-ordinated. Mexico, Chiapas, Mayan music for a Catholic festival diffusely orchestrated with trumpets, whistle, and drums in a style frequently found in Nuclear America and which 1 judge to be pre-Columbian. (Stanford & Warman #1, A1) - 0'41"

41. Simple Alternation: Leader-Group. AfroAmerica, U.S.A. The great American musician, Louis Armstrong, in a dialogue with his New Orleans orchestra. Male solo trumpet with reeds, percussion and strings. (Armstrong #1, A1) - 1'08"

42. Simple Alternation: Group-Group. South East Asia, Laos. The large, composite palace orchestra of the king with a dialogue between metalophone, oboe, flute and percussion. (Danielou #4, B3) - 0'44"

43. Overlapping., Leader-Group. East Europe. Bucharest State folk ensemble accompanying a great panpipe player in the favorite gypsy showpiece that describes the soaring, singing lark. Panpipe with violin and cymbalom accompaniment. (Alexandru, B14) - 0'55"

44. Overlapping: Group-Group. Central Europe. The Symphonic tradition, represented by Bach's "Preude and Fugue in B Flat Minor", arranged for concert band with overlapping horn sections. (Bach 2) - 0'37"

45. Solo. Melanesia, New Guinea, Sepik. Depicted in European cave drawings, the musical bow is found on every continent. The string of the musical mouth bow is plucked and the overtones of these notes are amplified by changes in the oral cavity near which one tip of the bow is held. (McClennon, A3) - 0'28"

46. Series of Solos. A quiet passage of Tchaikovsky's "Swan Lake", where one instrument dreamily answers another. Reed solos with symphony orchestra. (Russia. #12) - 0'29"

47. Simple group. Central Europe, West Moravia (Iglau). A traditional village string ensemble from the part of Europe that gave rise to the symphony orchestra. (Czechoslovakia #3, A2) - 0'34"

48. Disco-ordinated. South Asia, Kerala. A segment of the Kathakali, the magnificent dance drama tradition, where dancer-actors mime episodes from the Ramayana which are sung in heterophony with a heterophonic ensemble of drums, gongs and cymbals. (Levy #1 A7) - 0'47"

49.Simple Alternation: Leader-group. South Europe, Spain. Valencia. The wind interlude (trumpet, clarinet and trombone) between the sung strophes of the virtuosic."U-y-dos" genre. (Lomax #22, B1) - 0'43"

50. Simple Alternation: Group-Group. Indonesia. Bali, where everybody takes a turn playing in the village gamelan (metalophones, percussion, winds, strings) as it rehearses and performs long rituals and dance dramas. Here the good and bad demons fight. (Berthe B1) - 1'22"

51. Overlapping: Leade-Group. Afro-America. Martinique mountain folk dasnce (bele) with three drums (the deeper drum in the lead) overlapping each other - a West Indian formula. (Lomax #36, 7) - 0'45"

52. Overlapping: Group-Group. East Europe, Moscow. The choirs in the Bolshoi Orchestra slide over each other in the overlapping relationship found frequently in African drumming, in jazz arrangements and in contemporary European orchestration, but seldom elsewhere. String and wind sections of the symphony orchestra. (Russia #13) - 0'34"

53. Test #1. Central Africa. Banda. After the first rain of the season, children go single-file around the village clapping and singing this song for good fortune. (Arom & Dournon-Taurelle, B1) - 0'17"

54. Test #2. Central Asia, Tibet. A devotional to the deified, 8th century founder of Lamaism; 2 shawms, 2 long trumpets, 2 shell trumpets, 2 short horns, a hand-drum, cymbals, and a frame drum. (Crossley-Holland A1) - 0'30"

55. Test #3. Afro-America. A New York concert reunion of jazz oldsters where they play in Chicago style - each bandsman taking a solo in turn. Clarinet and trumpet with drum and cymbals. (Maltz B6) - 0'29"

56. Test #4. Central Europe. Stravinsky's "Symphony for Winds" - a dialogue between aerophone-led, polyphonic sections of the orchesta (Russia #13) - 0'40"

57. Test #5. Central Asia, Tibet. At sunrise, lamas summon the gods to help them, and in the evening they send them back to their place with music on oboes and horns. (Crossley-Holland, B3) - 0'37"

58. Test #6. East Europe, Moscow. A moment of high drama in which several choirs of a great orchestra overlap in a mounting crescendo of excitement. Wind solos over drums, followed by a chorus of wind instruments, alternating with string instruments. (Russia #13) - 0'47"

59. Test #7. Melanesia, New Guinea, Sepik River, Yambon. A seven-man garamut (slit drum orchestra) performs tatoos. (Kirk, A4) - 0'37"

60. Test #8. Central Asia, Bashkir. A flute solo in free-rhythm from a Tatar people who live in their own autonomous region in the Urals. (Russia #1, A 10) - 0'31"

TESTS - 1. Simple Group/ 2. Disco-ordinated/ 3. Overlap: Leader-Group/ 4. Alternation: Group-Group/ 5. Series of Solos/ 6. Overlap: Group-Group/ 7. Alternation: Leader-Group

ACCENT (36) - Forceful stress, which is somewhat more characteristic Of male than of female singing, tends to be more frequent in the singing of cultures in northern latitudes or where milk (the high energy food) is consumed. Lax accent is clearly associated with southern latitudes and a low protein subsistence system, based on root crops and small domesticated animals and without milking - productive situations where females generally contribute heavily to subsistence.

61. Dispute with gunshots at a tribal gatherinmg in Morocco - 0'41".

62. Very Forceful. S. America, E. Brazil. Cayapo manioc planters and hunter-fishers with a song style resembling some N. American styles. Male group, stamping. (Dreyfus-Roche #1, B2) - 0'19"

63. Very Relaxed. Melanesia, Admiralties, Usiai. Like other Melanesians, these root-pig gardeners were occasional cannibals, perhaps because of the relative scarcity of available protein in their diet. (Schwartz, 31) - 0'25"

64. Very Forceful. Repeat of #61 & #62. - 1'01"

65. Forceful. Afro-America. Mississippi southern black slaves and prisoners continued the African tradition of rhythmic work songs, giving them a sense of solidarity - an in-group culture - essential to psychic survival. Male group with axes. (Smith, Harry, A 4) - 0'30"

66. Mid (Moderate). N. Europe. Hebridean women sing and rhythmically knead (or waulk) a bolt of new tweed, until the fulling solution has been squeezed out and the cloth is done ~ an old practice that has kept alive the most pagan song tradition of Western Europe. Female leader with female group. (Lomax #33, B1) - 0'37"

67. Relaxed. C. Europe, Romania. Clui peasant girls, carrying a harvest wreath of wheat that symbolizes the sun, sing the harvest round the village. (Alexandru, A4) - 0'39"

68. Very Relaxed. Repeat of #63.

69. Test #1. N. Europe, Ireland, Cork. A girl, carried off by the fairies, is seen near the mound rocking her fairy child. She almost whispers a lullaby, which gives directions about how she may be rescued. Female solo. (Ennis & Lomax, A9) - 0'33"

70. Test #2. N. America. Plains buffalo hunters and mounted warriors of the Sioux confederacy, vigorously calling out their Omaha Dance song. Male group with drum. (Rhodes #1, A3b) - 0'38"

71. Test #3. E. Africa. The Luo have a rich diet of milk, cattle, sorghum, millet, fish and game and a rich music, drawing upon both Bantu and Nilotic traditions. Male solo and male group. (Tracey #2/ TR-167, B1) - 0'33"

72. Test #4. Europe, Norway. Loud with moderate accent and precise enunciation is the combination most favored by trained European vocalists like this ballad singer. (Norway #1, B7) - 0'28"

73. Test #5. N.Territory, Australia. Yirrkala tribesman of a diet-poor, acephalous, aboriginal culture sings an embellished sacred song for healing the wounded. Male solo with sticks. (Moyle #Z, B 4a)

74. Test #6. Afro-America, Mississippi. A newly-composed polyrhythmic 'double-cut' chopping song by four prisoners (Lomax #14, B4) - 1'07"

75. Test #7. N. Europe, Lapps. These Finno-Ugric reindeer-herders compose "joiks", songs that briefly fix some place or incident, in a pattern of nonsense syllables, characterized by uneven phrasing and glottal delivery. This, the principal song type of the peoples of Siberia, seems to be the source of much Amer-indian song. (Laade & Christensen #2, B1) - 0'21"

76. Test #8. N. American Plains, Cheyenne. A gently crooned lullaby from a valorous people who fought an epic battle against white man's domination. (Rhodes #4, A7) - 0'32"

77. Test #9. S. Europe, S. Italy. Fishermen sing at the capstan, drawing in the great seatrap laden with tuna. 'It's ready. There are 200. Heave! Heave!' Male chorus. (Lomax & Carpitella #29, B32)- 0'30"

78. Test #10. S. America, E. Brazil, Kraho. The low energy displayed in this performance may by correlated to the lack of available protein in the diet - a frequent condition among Amazonian manioc gardeners. (Schultz & Chiara, A3) - 0'55

TESTED - 1. Relaxed/ 2. Very forceful/ 3. Forceful/ 4. Mid/ 5. Very relaxed/ 6. Forceful/ 7. Mid/ 8. Very relaxed/ 9. Very forceful/ 10. Relaxed

VOLUME (25) - Loud volume. which is somewhat more common in male than in female performances. predicts centralized government, milk production, and a cultural focus on military glory. Soft volume is predicted by their absence.

79. Afro-America, Southern U.S.A. A Black Holiness church group performing triple forte. (Lomax #40, A6) - 0'28"

80. S.E.Asia, Thailand, Lua. Boys from a matrilocal and complementary culture sing softly outside a hut where their sweethearts sleep. Male group. (Kundstader, 6) - 0'34"

81. Very Loud. W. Africa, Ivory Coast, Baule. A festival song with mixed chorus and drums, from a tribe whose music strongly resembles that of the West Indies. (Thurow, B4) - 0'25"

82. Very Soft. Melanesia, Admiralties, Manus, Usiai. Three old men in a sing-song of wordless melodies, all by known song-makers and all harmonized. (Schwartz) - 1'18"

83. Soft. S. America, Jivara. A shaman, trying to determine whose magic is responsible for the death of a child, sings of his power. (Luzuy B5) - 0'34"

84. Mid. N. America, Newfoundland. A fisherman's dance song resembling the U.S. fiddle songs. (Barbeau #1 B26) 0'22"

85. Loud. Europe, N. Spain. Asturias, whose miners, farmers and fishermen compose and sing these superb traditional "asturianadas", a style that dates back to the time when Asturias was the seat of Spain's kings. (Lomax #241 A8) - 0'34"

86. Very Loud. Repeat of #81 - 0'53"

87. Test #1. Melanesia, S. Papuay Fuyege. This sweet, plaintive vocal style occurs in isolated cultures from Taiwan to the Solomons. (Elkins & Dupeyrat #7, B32) - 0'25"

88. Test #2. E. Africa; Watutsi. (See Line 24, test #10) (Verwilghen #2, A4) - 0'36" 89. Test #3. C. Africa, Topoke. (See Line 24, test #9) (Camps, A7) - 0'31"

90. Test #4. Polynesia, Maori. A large mixed chorus sings an ancient lament. (Maori #2, B1) - 0'33"

91. Test #5. S. Europe, Sardinia. Male chorus. (Lomax #29 B8) - 0'24"

92. Test #6. Anglo-America, Virginia Mts. One verse of an old British ballad of fratricide ( "The Two Brothers") in 'Old-timey',style by Hobart Smith of Saltville. (Lomax, F.R.) - 0'35"

93. Test #7. S.E. Asia, Interior Malaya, Temiar. A mixed chorus from this small tribe of jungle gardeners and blow-hunters intone a song sent by the Tiger Spirit. Accompanied on percussion tubes. (Malaya, B4) - 0'35"

94. Test #8. N. America, Cayuga. A Corn Dance song from the Iroquois eight nation confederacy of hunters and maize gardeners. Male leader with male chorus and rattle. (Barbeau #1, A4)

95. Test #9. Afro-America. The great Alabama folk singer, Vera Hall, is singing a black folk carol about the birth of Jesus, as she would to an audience of children.(Lomax, F.R.) - 0'46"

96. Test #10. Melanesia, S. Papua, Tawade. A mo=tain tribe of great singers and dancers with the reputation as fierce warriors. Male group. (Elkin & Dupeyrat #7, B 5) - 0'33"

TESTED: 1. Very Soft/ 2. Mid/ 3. Loud/ 4. Soft/ 5. Very Loud/ 6. Mid/ 7. Very Soft/ 8. Very Loud/ 9. Soft/ 10. Loud

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