- THE WORLD ENCOMPASSED - 8 CDs - vol 3
THE RHYTHMIC RELATIONSHIP OF THE VOCAL GROUP TO ORCHESTRA (2)
01. Introduction. Central Asia, Mongolia. Professional folk musicians perform
a modern song. Female group with yetah (zither). (Vargyas, D11) - 1'17"
02. Rhythmic Heterophony. South America, Interior Amazon, Ucayali River.
The Conibo are a small tribe of complementary jungle fishers and gardeners,
renowned for pottery and textile design. This mixed group, led by male with
drum accompaniment, gives a typically diffuse performance. (Tschopik, B10) -
03. Rhythmic Unison. Central Europe, Hungary. This is a slow czardas dance
tune in complex 7/8 meter, performed in unison by a male singer and fiddle.
(Hungary, #2) - 0'47"
04. Accompanying Rhythm. Ladino, a Judeo-Spanish love song by a professional
male singer accompanied by flutey strings and tuned drums. (Stambler, A 1) -
05. Rhythmic Counterpoint. S.E. France, Auvergne. A lullaby in languedoc
(an early form of French known as "Occident"), sung by a cultivated female soloist
with oboe accompaniment. (Gesser, B7) - 0'57"
06. Polyrhythm. Mexico, Oaxaca, Mixtec, pre-Columbia shifting cultivators
of maize. Here a male soloist accompanies himself on a three-string tortoise-shell
guitar. (Stanford #2, A2) - 0'52"
07. Phythmic Heterolphony. S. Asia, Manipur, Meithei. A priestess in this
irrigation, caste-organized, yet complementary society sings a hymn to the Earth
Mother, accompanied by a pena (bowed lute) in a voice remarkably close to Rumanian
doina style. (Lightfoot, A 1) - 0'41"
08. Rhythmic Unison. E. Europe, Russia. An art song about Stenka Razin,
the peasant revolutionary, performed by the Soviet Army male ensemble with string
orchestra accompaniment. (Russia #3, side 22, #4) - 0'48
09. Accompanying Rhythm. U.S.A. The Arkansas school-teacher, folk balladeer,
Jimmy Driftwood, sings one of the many songs about true-love-triumphing-over-cruelparents,
with guitar and bass accompaniment. (Driftwood, B2) - 0'34"
10. Rhythmic Counterpoint. E. Asia. A professional female soloist accompanied
by a plucked lute and flute in a Chinese musical drama from Macao, Canton. (China,
B2) - 0'43"
11. Polyrhythm. C. Africa. The Luo are complementary, Nilotic terrace farmers
with cattle and milking. A virtuojo-Luo bard improvises a topical songy accompanied
by an eight string lyre. (Tracey #i(TR-168 B21) - 1'08"
12. Test #1. N. America, Southwest, Navaho. One of the most extraordinary
items in the highly developed artistic and ceremonial life of this matrilineal
and complementary culture is the Night Chant, part of a nine-day initiation
rite for adolescents. Male singers with rattles. (Rhodes #3, B1) - 0'42"
13. Test #2. C. Europe, S. Germany. Wurttemburg. A comic surrealist, peasant
dance song for mixed group and brass band. (Wiora, D8) - 0'31"
14. Test #3. Afro-America, Mississippi Delta. The classic 12-bar blues performed
in rock styley with a charac:reristically complex African relationship of guitar
and harmonica. (Lomax #131 A6) - 0'48"
15. Test #4. C. Europe, Germany. Comparison of this famous Weill "jazz'
number to the preceding blues shows that Europeans did not at first comprehend
the organisational principles of black music. Female solo with strings, winds,
horns and percussion accompaniment. (Lenya) - 0'53"
16. Test #5. S. Asia, W. Bengal. A morning raga, part of an erudite system
of themes for improvisation. Legend tells of how a night raga, played at the
wrong hour, brought darkness at noon. Narrow voiced, embellished male solo with
bowed lute, sitar, flute and drum accompaniment. (India #3, A1) - 0'41"
17. Test #6. S. Europe, Italy, Puglia. A lyric serenade sung by a worker
accompanied by guitar. (Lomax (& Carpitella :#29, A9) - 0'40"
18. Test #7. E. Europe, Russia. An operatic solo from Prince Igor performed
by Chaliapin with a complex orchestra accompaniment. Opera style is characterized
by wordiness, precision, loudness, tremolo and maintenance of a single wide-voiced
vocal stance. (Cowell #1, B6) - 0'37"
19. Test #8. S. Europe, S. Spain. A Murician parrando (gay dance) sung with
instrumental voice (narrow, hard, nasal, loud) with guitar and clappmg, from
an area where Moorish culture once flourished. (Lomax #19, B8) - 1'06"
20. Test #9. E. Africa, S. Sudan. The Pari are semi-nomadic, Nilotic, cattle
and cereal cultivators, organized in loose confederacies with informal age-grade
associations. Male singer with mixed chorus and long horn. This case can be
heard in two ways (Carlisle #3, 1) - 0'31"
21. Test #10. Repeat of #1 - 1'48"
TESTS - 1. Accompanying/ 2 Uinison/ 3. Polyrhythm/ 4. Counterpoint/ 5. Heterephony/
6. Accompanying/ 7. Counterpoint/ 8.Polyrhythm/ 0. Heterophony/ 10 Unison
THE RHYTHMIC CO-ORDINATION OF THE ORCHESTRA (9) - No correlations have been
tested for this scale.
21. (cont.) N. America, New York City, a group in the Cantometric lab acting
out 'musical chaos' - 0'37"
22. Little or none. C. America, Guna, Araquia. Cuna culture, a link between
Mayan and Andean upland traditions, is still very much alive today in matriarchally-organized
families and in elaborate ceremonies of female initiation where long, mythological
epics and panpipe and horn music play a central part. Here six men dance in
a circle, blowing long, plain bamboo pipes, with two panpipe players on the
sidelines. (Taylor & Moser, 3, A5) - 0'37"
23.Mimimal. S. America, Peru, Junin, Santiago. Violin, trumpet and drum
sound their separate excitement to spur on the work of the harvest in the delightful
disunion that is one of the charms of the aboriginal and mestizo music of the
region. (Peru, 10) - 0'39"
24. Moderate. Mexico, Morelos. Tlayacapan town band of 18 men (trumpets,
trombones, saxophones, bass fiddles, drum, cymbals) blast out the carnival music
for the masked, transvestite male 'chinelos' dancers. (Warman, A-middle section)
25. Unified. N. America, Galax, Virginia. Blue Grass, the tightly synchronized
'square dance music in overdrive' that is the Southern Appalachian reaction
to urban industrialization. The orchestration of fiddle, five-string banjo,
mandolin, guitar and bass matches the five piece New Orleans hot jazz band.
(Lomax #12, A2) - 0'34"
26. Maximal. Indonesia, Bali. The precisely meshed counterpoint of the gamelon
gong orchestra mirrors the carefully coordinated social organization essential
to the irrigation systems on which Indonesian food supply depends. (Berthe A3)
27. Test #l. C. Europe, Russia. One of the modern state balalaika orchestras
swirls through a traditional Russian folk dance. Strings. (Russia:#2 A5) - 0'29"
28. Test #2. Melanesia,Solomon Islands, Malaita. A modern ceremonial panpipe
orchestra - six instruments - organized in pairs, one playing 1, 3, 5, 7, the
other - 2, 4, 6, 8 - in three-part polyphony, each part doubled at the octave.
(Zemp #1, A3) - 0'26"
29. Test #3. S. America, Peru, Junin. The lively orchestral traditions of
the Andes are reminders of Peru's imperial past. In some cases the instrumentation
and the melodies have survived. Here, it is the ambiance, the ensemble, which
is clearly native, even though the musical material is Hispanic. (Peru, 12)
30. Test #4. N. America, New York City. A fragment of "Blues for Planet
Earth", composed by Roswell Rudd and played by four trumpets, four trombones,
five saxophones, clarinet, drums and bass. (Rudd) - 0'32"
31. Test #5. E. Asia. Korean classical An Ahk ('neat and orderly') music,
composed in 1450 for ceremonial and state occasions, played on a range of instruments
of wood, metal and stone, representing the sounds of nature. (Park, B11) - 0'30"
32. Test #6. E. Europe, Sloyakia near Bratislava, Klenovec. A bevy of bowed
lutes and cymbaloms, playing the flowing counter-rhythms so loved in this part
of Europe. (Czechoslovakia #1, A1) - 0'27"
33. Test #7. E. Europe, Latvia. Subate dance, played by a wind ensemble
employing a concert hall technique.(Russia #1) - 0'28"
34. Test #8. C. Europe. Italy. A Piedmont cattle herd, each cow with its
own tuned bell, the leader swinging the biggest of them, sways up the path to
summer pasture in the Alps. (Lomax & Carpitella: #31, A1) - 0'24"
35. Test #9. Africa, Upper Volta. These two Bambara farmers journey hundreds
of miles every year to play their xylophones at the king's palace; the bells
on their wrists jingle. (Duvelle #1, A3) - 0'45"
36. Test #10. S. America, Colombia, Choco. Cholo Indians, deep in the rain
forest, carriers of a diffusely-organized, pre-conquest culture, sounding a
six-hole flute with maraccas and cymbals. (Chapelle & Marion, B6) - 0'54"
TESTS - 1. Maximal/ 2. Unified/ 3. Moderate/ 4. Little or none/ 5. Minimal/
6. Moderate/ 7. Maximal/ Little or none/ 9. Unified/ 10. Minimal
THE SOCIAL ORGANISATION OF THE ORCHESTRAL GROUP (3) - No correlations have
been tested on this scale.
37. Solo. Melanesia, Torres Strait. A plaintive melody on the notched flute
from the sea-going, cannibalistic Papuans who occupied the archipelago between
New Guinea and Australia. (Beckett & West #1, B2a) - 0'29"
38. Series of Solos. South Asia, S. India, Kerala. An ancient type of TamiI
orchestra; a musical bow hung with brass bells, Two-pitchers slapped with fiber
pads, a small hour-glass drum, cymbals and clappers. (Levy #1, B1) - 0'46"
39. Simple Group. Central Asia, Turkestan. A flute and drum piece that resembles
the traditional flute music of Sicily. (Danielou #3, A3) - 0'36"
40. Disco-ordinated. Mexico, Chiapas, Mayan music for a Catholic festival
diffusely orchestrated with trumpets, whistle, and drums in a style frequently
found in Nuclear America and which 1 judge to be pre-Columbian. (Stanford &
Warman #1, A1) - 0'41"
41. Simple Alternation: Leader-Group. AfroAmerica, U.S.A. The great American
musician, Louis Armstrong, in a dialogue with his New Orleans orchestra. Male
solo trumpet with reeds, percussion and strings. (Armstrong #1, A1) - 1'08"
42. Simple Alternation: Group-Group. South East Asia, Laos. The large, composite
palace orchestra of the king with a dialogue between metalophone, oboe, flute
and percussion. (Danielou #4, B3) - 0'44"
43. Overlapping., Leader-Group. East Europe. Bucharest State folk ensemble
accompanying a great panpipe player in the favorite gypsy showpiece that describes
the soaring, singing lark. Panpipe with violin and cymbalom accompaniment. (Alexandru,
B14) - 0'55"
44. Overlapping: Group-Group. Central Europe. The Symphonic tradition, represented
by Bach's "Preude and Fugue in B Flat Minor", arranged for concert band with
overlapping horn sections. (Bach 2) - 0'37"
45. Solo. Melanesia, New Guinea, Sepik. Depicted in European cave drawings,
the musical bow is found on every continent. The string of the musical mouth
bow is plucked and the overtones of these notes are amplified by changes in
the oral cavity near which one tip of the bow is held. (McClennon, A3) - 0'28"
46. Series of Solos. A quiet passage of Tchaikovsky's "Swan Lake", where
one instrument dreamily answers another. Reed solos with symphony orchestra.
(Russia. #12) - 0'29"
47. Simple group. Central Europe, West Moravia (Iglau). A traditional village
string ensemble from the part of Europe that gave rise to the symphony orchestra.
(Czechoslovakia #3, A2) - 0'34"
48. Disco-ordinated. South Asia, Kerala. A segment of the Kathakali, the
magnificent dance drama tradition, where dancer-actors mime episodes from the
Ramayana which are sung in heterophony with a heterophonic ensemble of drums,
gongs and cymbals. (Levy #1 A7) - 0'47"
49.Simple Alternation: Leader-group. South Europe, Spain. Valencia. The
wind interlude (trumpet, clarinet and trombone) between the sung strophes of
the virtuosic."U-y-dos" genre. (Lomax #22, B1) - 0'43"
50. Simple Alternation: Group-Group. Indonesia. Bali, where everybody takes
a turn playing in the village gamelan (metalophones, percussion, winds, strings)
as it rehearses and performs long rituals and dance dramas. Here the good and
bad demons fight. (Berthe B1) - 1'22"
51. Overlapping: Leade-Group. Afro-America. Martinique mountain folk dasnce
(bele) with three drums (the deeper drum in the lead) overlapping each other
- a West Indian formula. (Lomax #36, 7) - 0'45"
52. Overlapping: Group-Group. East Europe, Moscow. The choirs in the Bolshoi
Orchestra slide over each other in the overlapping relationship found frequently
in African drumming, in jazz arrangements and in contemporary European orchestration,
but seldom elsewhere. String and wind sections of the symphony orchestra. (Russia
#13) - 0'34"
53. Test #1. Central Africa. Banda. After the first rain of the season,
children go single-file around the village clapping and singing this song for
good fortune. (Arom & Dournon-Taurelle, B1) - 0'17"
54. Test #2. Central Asia, Tibet. A devotional to the deified, 8th century
founder of Lamaism; 2 shawms, 2 long trumpets, 2 shell trumpets, 2 short horns,
a hand-drum, cymbals, and a frame drum. (Crossley-Holland A1) - 0'30"
55. Test #3. Afro-America. A New York concert reunion of jazz oldsters where
they play in Chicago style - each bandsman taking a solo in turn. Clarinet and
trumpet with drum and cymbals. (Maltz B6) - 0'29"
56. Test #4. Central Europe. Stravinsky's "Symphony for Winds" - a dialogue
between aerophone-led, polyphonic sections of the orchesta (Russia #13) - 0'40"
57. Test #5. Central Asia, Tibet. At sunrise, lamas summon the gods to help
them, and in the evening they send them back to their place with music on oboes
and horns. (Crossley-Holland, B3) - 0'37"
58. Test #6. East Europe, Moscow. A moment of high drama in which several
choirs of a great orchestra overlap in a mounting crescendo of excitement. Wind
solos over drums, followed by a chorus of wind instruments, alternating with
string instruments. (Russia #13) - 0'47"
59. Test #7. Melanesia, New Guinea, Sepik River, Yambon. A seven-man garamut
(slit drum orchestra) performs tatoos. (Kirk, A4) - 0'37"
60. Test #8. Central Asia, Bashkir. A flute solo in free-rhythm from a Tatar
people who live in their own autonomous region in the Urals. (Russia #1, A 10)
TESTS - 1. Simple Group/ 2. Disco-ordinated/ 3. Overlap: Leader-Group/ 4.
Alternation: Group-Group/ 5. Series of Solos/ 6. Overlap: Group-Group/ 7. Alternation:
ACCENT (36) - Forceful stress, which is somewhat more characteristic Of
male than of female singing, tends to be more frequent in the singing of cultures
in northern latitudes or where milk (the high energy food) is consumed. Lax
accent is clearly associated with southern latitudes and a low protein subsistence
system, based on root crops and small domesticated animals and without milking
- productive situations where females generally contribute heavily to subsistence.
61. Dispute with gunshots at a tribal gatherinmg in Morocco - 0'41".
62. Very Forceful. S. America, E. Brazil. Cayapo manioc planters and hunter-fishers
with a song style resembling some N. American styles. Male group, stamping.
(Dreyfus-Roche #1, B2) - 0'19"
63. Very Relaxed. Melanesia, Admiralties, Usiai. Like other Melanesians,
these root-pig gardeners were occasional cannibals, perhaps because of the relative
scarcity of available protein in their diet. (Schwartz, 31) - 0'25"
64. Very Forceful. Repeat of #61 & #62. - 1'01"
65. Forceful. Afro-America. Mississippi southern black slaves and prisoners
continued the African tradition of rhythmic work songs, giving them a sense
of solidarity - an in-group culture - essential to psychic survival. Male group
with axes. (Smith, Harry, A 4) - 0'30"
66. Mid (Moderate). N. Europe. Hebridean women sing and rhythmically knead
(or waulk) a bolt of new tweed, until the fulling solution has been squeezed
out and the cloth is done ~ an old practice that has kept alive the most pagan
song tradition of Western Europe. Female leader with female group. (Lomax #33,
B1) - 0'37"
67. Relaxed. C. Europe, Romania. Clui peasant girls, carrying a harvest
wreath of wheat that symbolizes the sun, sing the harvest round the village.
(Alexandru, A4) - 0'39"
68. Very Relaxed. Repeat of #63.
69. Test #1. N. Europe, Ireland, Cork. A girl, carried off by the fairies,
is seen near the mound rocking her fairy child. She almost whispers a lullaby,
which gives directions about how she may be rescued. Female solo. (Ennis & Lomax,
A9) - 0'33"
70. Test #2. N. America. Plains buffalo hunters and mounted warriors of
the Sioux confederacy, vigorously calling out their Omaha Dance song. Male group
with drum. (Rhodes #1, A3b) - 0'38"
71. Test #3. E. Africa. The Luo have a rich diet of milk, cattle, sorghum,
millet, fish and game and a rich music, drawing upon both Bantu and Nilotic
traditions. Male solo and male group. (Tracey #2/ TR-167, B1) - 0'33"
72. Test #4. Europe, Norway. Loud with moderate accent and precise enunciation
is the combination most favored by trained European vocalists like this ballad
singer. (Norway #1, B7) - 0'28"
73. Test #5. N.Territory, Australia. Yirrkala tribesman of a diet-poor,
acephalous, aboriginal culture sings an embellished sacred song for healing
the wounded. Male solo with sticks. (Moyle #Z, B 4a)
74. Test #6. Afro-America, Mississippi. A newly-composed polyrhythmic 'double-cut'
chopping song by four prisoners (Lomax #14, B4) - 1'07"
75. Test #7. N. Europe, Lapps. These Finno-Ugric reindeer-herders compose
"joiks", songs that briefly fix some place or incident, in a pattern of nonsense
syllables, characterized by uneven phrasing and glottal delivery. This, the
principal song type of the peoples of Siberia, seems to be the source of much
Amer-indian song. (Laade & Christensen #2, B1) - 0'21"
76. Test #8. N. American Plains, Cheyenne. A gently crooned lullaby from
a valorous people who fought an epic battle against white man's domination.
(Rhodes #4, A7) - 0'32"
77. Test #9. S. Europe, S. Italy. Fishermen sing at the capstan, drawing
in the great seatrap laden with tuna. 'It's ready. There are 200. Heave! Heave!'
Male chorus. (Lomax & Carpitella #29, B32)- 0'30"
78. Test #10. S. America, E. Brazil, Kraho. The low energy displayed in
this performance may by correlated to the lack of available protein in the diet
- a frequent condition among Amazonian manioc gardeners. (Schultz & Chiara,
A3) - 0'55
TESTED - 1. Relaxed/ 2. Very forceful/ 3. Forceful/ 4. Mid/ 5. Very relaxed/
6. Forceful/ 7. Mid/ 8. Very relaxed/ 9. Very forceful/ 10. Relaxed
VOLUME (25) - Loud volume. which is somewhat more common in male than in
female performances. predicts centralized government, milk production, and a
cultural focus on military glory. Soft volume is predicted by their absence.
79. Afro-America, Southern U.S.A. A Black Holiness church group performing
triple forte. (Lomax #40, A6) - 0'28"
80. S.E.Asia, Thailand, Lua. Boys from a matrilocal and complementary culture
sing softly outside a hut where their sweethearts sleep. Male group. (Kundstader,
6) - 0'34"
81. Very Loud. W. Africa, Ivory Coast, Baule. A festival song with mixed
chorus and drums, from a tribe whose music strongly resembles that of the West
Indies. (Thurow, B4) - 0'25"
82. Very Soft. Melanesia, Admiralties, Manus, Usiai. Three old men in a
sing-song of wordless melodies, all by known song-makers and all harmonized.
(Schwartz) - 1'18"
83. Soft. S. America, Jivara. A shaman, trying to determine whose magic
is responsible for the death of a child, sings of his power. (Luzuy B5) - 0'34"
84. Mid. N. America, Newfoundland. A fisherman's dance song resembling the
U.S. fiddle songs. (Barbeau #1 B26) 0'22"
85. Loud. Europe, N. Spain. Asturias, whose miners, farmers and fishermen
compose and sing these superb traditional "asturianadas", a style that dates
back to the time when Asturias was the seat of Spain's kings. (Lomax #241 A8)
86. Very Loud. Repeat of #81 - 0'53"
87. Test #1. Melanesia, S. Papuay Fuyege. This sweet, plaintive vocal style
occurs in isolated cultures from Taiwan to the Solomons. (Elkins & Dupeyrat
#7, B32) - 0'25"
88. Test #2. E. Africa; Watutsi. (See Line 24, test #10) (Verwilghen #2,
A4) - 0'36" 89. Test #3. C. Africa, Topoke. (See Line 24, test #9) (Camps, A7)
90. Test #4. Polynesia, Maori. A large mixed chorus sings an ancient lament.
(Maori #2, B1) - 0'33"
91. Test #5. S. Europe, Sardinia. Male chorus. (Lomax #29 B8) - 0'24"
92. Test #6. Anglo-America, Virginia Mts. One verse of an old British ballad
of fratricide ( "The Two Brothers") in 'Old-timey',style by Hobart Smith of
Saltville. (Lomax, F.R.) - 0'35"
93. Test #7. S.E. Asia, Interior Malaya, Temiar. A mixed chorus from this
small tribe of jungle gardeners and blow-hunters intone a song sent by the Tiger
Spirit. Accompanied on percussion tubes. (Malaya, B4) - 0'35"
94. Test #8. N. America, Cayuga. A Corn Dance song from the Iroquois eight
nation confederacy of hunters and maize gardeners. Male leader with male chorus
and rattle. (Barbeau #1, A4)
95. Test #9. Afro-America. The great Alabama folk singer, Vera Hall, is
singing a black folk carol about the birth of Jesus, as she would to an audience
of children.(Lomax, F.R.) - 0'46"
96. Test #10. Melanesia, S. Papua, Tawade. A mo=tain tribe of great singers
and dancers with the reputation as fierce warriors. Male group. (Elkin & Dupeyrat
#7, B 5) - 0'33"
TESTED: 1. Very Soft/ 2. Mid/ 3. Loud/ 4. Soft/ 5. Very Loud/ 6. Mid/ 7.
Very Soft/ 8. Very Loud/ 9. Soft/ 10. Loud