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1. ANNINNIA (lullaby)- 1'21" - Female voice rec Orgosolo, Nuoro 1964

2. ANNINNIA (lullaby)- 1'37" - Female voice rec Ossi, Sassari 1964

3. ANNINNIA (lullaby) - 1'13" - Female voice rec Seui, Nuoro 1967

4. ATTITU (funeral dirge)- 1'31" - Female voice rec Orroli, Nuoro 1967

5. ATTITU (funeral dirge) - 1'08" - Female voice rec Scano Montiferro, Nuoro 1967

6. ATTITU (funeral dirge)- 1'52" - Female voice rec Ossi, Sassari 1964

7. DURU-DURU (nursery rhyme) - 1'26" - Female voice rec Nulvi, Sassari 1964

8. DURU-DURU (nursery rhyme) - 0'31" - Female voice rec Nulvi, Sassari 1964

9. DURU-DURU (dance song)- 1'15" - Female voice rec Orgosolo, Nuoro 1967

10. DURU-DURU (dance song) - 0'51" - Female voice rec Bitti, Nuoro 1967

11. A BOCHE 'E BALLU (dance song) - 2'01" - Female voice rec Bitti, Nuoro 1967

12. ANDIMIRONNAI - 0'37" - Female voice rec Seui, Nuoro 1967

13. MUTETTU - 0'53" - Female voice rec Seui, Nuoro 1967

14. MUTETTU - 0'56" - Male voice rec Zeddiani, Cagliari 1968

15. MUTOS - 0'53" - Alternating female voices rec Desulo, Nuoro 1967

16. MUTOS - 2'11" - Alternating female voices rec Florinas, Sassari 1968

17. MUTU - 0'46" - Female voice rec Florinas, Sassari 1968

18. MUTOS - 1'40" - Female voice rec Orgosolo, Nuoro 1968


19. MUTETTU - 1'11" - Female voice and sieve ("sifter") rec Cabras, Cagliari 1962

20. GOBBULA (copla) - 1'11" - Male voice & tambourine rec Sassari 1963

21. CANZONE A CURBA (copla) - 1'33" - Male voice & launeddas rec Cabras, Cagliari 1962

22. BOGHE IN RE (song in D) - 7'28" - Alternating male voices & guitar rec Ossi, Sassari 1964

23. A SA NUORESA (in the Nuorese style) - 4'38" - Alternating male voices & guitar rec Ossi, Sassari 1964

24. MUTOS - 2'19" - Alternating male voices & guitar rec Paulilatino, Cagliari 1968

25. MUTOS - 5'16" - Alternating male voices & guitar rec Ossi, Sassari 1964

26. CORSICANA - 4'18" - Male voice & guitar rec Monti, Sassari 1964

27. BALLU (dance song) - 1'53" - Male voice & guitar rec Ploaghe, Sassari 1964

28. BALLU (dance song) - 1'45" - Male voice & guitar rec Ossi, Sassari 1964

29. MUTTETTUS A TRALLALERO - 1'17" - Female voice with female voices in unison rec Serramana, Cagliari 1968

30. GOSOS OF THE EASTER HOLY WEEK - 2'48" - Female chorus in two parts rfec Fonni, Nuoro 1967

31. As previous - 3'21" - Male voice boys choir with harmonium rec Ploaghe, Sassari 1964

32. GOBBULA - 1'29" - Mixed reciting voices rec Sassari 1963

33. PERANTUNADA IN HONOUR OF St ANTHONY - 1'56" - Male voice & 4 male voices rec Castelsardo, Sassari 1965

34. EXTEMPORISED TRIPLETS - 1'34" - Male voice & 4 male voices rec Scano Montiferro, Nuoro 1967

35. EXTEMPORISED OCTAVES - 1'09" - Male voice & male voices rec Thiesi, Sassari 1967

36. ROSARY - 3'25" - Female voice & female chorus in two parts rec Orgosolo, Nuoro 1968

1-3. Anninnia This is a lullaby or cradle song which mothers used to sing to their children while rocking them to sleep. The name "anninnia", in Sardinian dialect, derives from the recurrent pattern "anninnia anninnia", which is inserted as a stereotyped line all through the song. This musical style is one of the most archaic and is always sung by a single female voice.

4-6. Attitu This is a funeral dirge still in use in a few communities. These songs frequently contain references to the life and qualities of the dead man. Usually it is performed by a single female voice but sometimes, with all the women around taking part. In the case of violent death the female voice singing ("attitadora") instigates the victim's relatives to revenge through her song. Sometimes, a long time ago, in other ritualized circumstances, such as the "argia" exorcism ("argia" being the word for tarantism in Sardinia) or at reaping time, as expression of grief for the crops, it used the same musical pattern.

7-10. Duru-duru This is a nursery rhyme, deriving its name "duru-duru" from Arabic where "duru" means to turn around. These songs are rhythmical compositions used for dancing and dandling (bouncing children on the knee). In the latter case it is always performed by a female voice like the "anninnia".

12. Andimironnai This kind of song doesn't have a special occasion or purpose in order to be performed. There are different modes of performance: female voice, male voice plus chorus; but in its structure it is similar to the "mutettu".

13-19. Mutos and mutettus These are very common songs, easily adapted to different occasions. Generally the contents are amorous or satirical and mainly used for the so-called Sardinian tarantism (the "agia"ritual). There's not a clear distinction between "mutu" and "mutettu", the easiest way to understand is to draw a distinction on the basis of linguistic and geographical areas: the "mutettus" belong to Campidano; whereas the "mutos" to Logudoro and Barbagia.

20. Gobbula These are begging songs performed on New Year's Day and at Epiphany by groups of young people as they went about begging from door to door for gifts (dried figs, nuts, etc.). They are satirical songs with their contents rich in wishful and witty expressions.

21. Canzone a Curba This is a satirical song that can be performed with or without instrumental accompaniment. In this case the performance is in Campidano dialect accompanied by a "launeddas", a uniqauely Sardinian instrument made up of three reed tubes of different lengths played together.

22. Boghe in Re (Song in D) This song does not have a special occasion or purpose in performance, however the contents are usually amorous and so they can be used for purposes such as serenades and other forms of entertainment.

23. A su Nuoresa (in the Nuorese style) As the Boghe in Re, the mutos and the Corsicana, this is not performed on special occasions, nor for particular purposes. The title of the song derives from the mistaken belief that its musical style originated in the Nuoro area, but actually it is from Logudoro.

24-5. All of these "mutos torrados" performed with guitar, belong to the linguistic area of Logudoro

26. Corsicana These songs, although typical of the Gallura area, are also spread all over Logudoro, and may well explain the linguistic hybridism of their composition. The name "corsicana" derives from the belief that they originated from Corsica. The contents are amorous and the mood usually nostalgic. This kind of song doesn't have a special occasion or purpose in performance.

27-28. Ballu These songs are for dancing, sometimes full of erotic and humorous allusions. They have mainly a rhythmical function and are performed by one or more singers leading the dance, either in a ring or arranged in couples

29. Mutettus-trallallero The occasion of its performance is undetermined. It is a variation of the mutettu sung by a solo voice; other voices (male, female or both) perform a nonsense refrain ("trallallero") at the end of the composition. The contents are amorous and full of allusions.

30-31. Gogos These are religious songs dedicated to the Saints, the Virgin, etc.. The structure and contents are similar to those of the lauda. During Holy Week different gogos are performed each day.

32. Gobbula - See #20

33. Perentunada (a song in honour of St. Anthony) It is a begging song performed on the Eve of St. Anthony, the Abbot (17 January) by a chorus of four male voices: the solo sings a line then the chorus repeats it. The contents are both narrative and hagiographical.

34-35. Extempore triplets and octaves Improvisation is very common in Sardinian tradition and in a number of different verse form: couplets, triplets, quatrains and above all octaves. The contents can be various, featuring: love, topical subjects, politics and can be used in poetical contests (in octaves) also mythology and history. Improvisation is used on several occasions, such as for tavern entertainment, weddings, parties, etc.. Frequently during the village feasts there are public poetry contests on fixed themes which are decided by a committee. These are developed antagonistically by two or more well-known improvising singers. Usually the public is very interested in the competition expressing their approval or dissent and a four-voice chorus takes part in an improvisation with nonsense words such as "bim-boo", "bam-bii"......

36. Rosary This is a said-and-sung form of the rosary performed in church, during processions and occasionally at home. The introduction and the Gloria are in corrupt Latin while the remaining parts are in Sardinian dialect. It is sung by a solo female voice accompanied by a chorus of other female voices.

13. I'll present the king's daughter/ With a couple of earrings/ As she's faithful to me/ The king's daughter/ I'll smash the venemous argia/ Its facebones to pieces/ If I lay hands on it/ The king's daughter/ O venemous argia/ I'll smash its facebones/ If I lay hands on it/ etc

14. Giant Goliath/ Pursued by ill luck/ David the goatherard/ A coffin made for him/ And still he hates him/ Hard-hearted David/ He said he felt no fear/ He is not easily moved/ He killed him in no time// Giant Goliath/ I sing a muttetu/ Though I'm no poet/ Pursued by ill luck/ (Repetition of 1st mutettu)/ But still I keep in mind/ The singers of the contest/ Its value is divine/ Together with Gabriel/ They sing what they can express/ As a poet speaks through his song/ And says what he feels in his heart//

15a. It costs a hundred scudi/ It comes from overseas/ The Jewish handkerchief// Kind regards to you/ From my heart/ Provisionally//

15b. My nice young priest/ Doesn't let people sin/ My severe little priest// O my nice young priest/ Go away, go away/ Like furious stormy wind/ As you happened to come in//

16a. If a bird flies/ In the springtime/ My mind does wander// Who'll give me confort?/ when you aren't here/ All my mirth is over//

16b. This gown of mine is short/ Brocade will make it longer/ A rose to embellish it/ Will be just in the middle// My lover told me/ I am a nice brunette/ A nice brunette indeed//

16c. A small golden carnation/ Is pinned on my breast/ Its smell can make me happy// Here I am today/ But my love is neither here/ Nor is it likely to come//

16d. In the main square in Bosa/ Is St. Catherine's Church/ It was God who placed it there// A bush of roses/ Has taken root/ Inside my heart//

16e. Birds flock in a cloud/ In search of the shade/ Of a leafy tree// My heart to just anyone/ I can't commit my life/ Unless it is to you//

17. Thirty-eight carnations/ A lady waters them/ With dew from asphodel// Thirty eight carnations// My folks don't want you/ Don't be angry darling// I can't give you my love// A lady waters them//

18a. There is a palace standing/ On Monte Ortobene/ It is made of magnets// On Monte Ortobene/ You know I made a promise/ That I shall ber yours/ As long as I live//

18b. Anninni anninnia/ A shepherdess is singing/ In a melodious voice// E anninnni anninnia/ My God it would be great/ If he could come to me//

19. Our Lord's carnation/ Don't mistake it for love/ My affection for you/ There are some in Andrew's garden/ Some are picked in the convent/ They are potted to be smelled/ My affection for you/ Never mistake it for love/ Never and never/ If only I could forget/ If only I could take wing//

20. Let us sing for the Magi/ May God bless us with everything/ With as much as grandad's got/ The poor fellow was so skinny/ He could drink just turnip broth/ And his coat in such a state/ And his hat was even worse/ His father was a servant/ And his mother a servant too/ But his daughter's a fine lady/ He would take her out on walks/ Everybody laughed at her/ Come give us dried eggs and nuts/ And dried plums if you have any/ Let us sing for the Magi//

21. Worn out spinsters, you followers of the fashion/ In these hard times of ours full of scarcity/ You keep on following your paramoors whims/ Though ev4erything is getting extremely expensive// You can't see anyone of them now/ Without a lofty bearing and rich tire/ Unmarried women are perfect in everything/ And they go mad over clothes// And they go mad - and this I want to say/ To say it openly without any fear/ They always display their up-to-date models/ Coats and gown of sundry fashions/ And they always follow the smartest fashions/ To cut a fine figure and in the meantime they change/ Their lovers too - according to the fashion//

22. Beloved youth/ In your happy season// Innocent lover/ I can die for your love// If you shine so/ I must call you a star// I need to admire you/ How charming you are// You are a star in the sky/ And an angelical rose// A rose being coupled with a rose/ In a flowery valley// Sleep cheerfully wake up/ Sadly if you think of me// My serenade is over/ Sp let's depart//

23. When I first met her, met her/ She was beautiful she looked like a saint/ She was superb she was stately/ Her forehead serene, devout/ With a kiss I sent a letter/ I wet it my tears my joy/ When you told me told me love/ I thought that you might be joking//

24. If I start dancing/ First I dance the Tango/ Then the Tarantella// If I start dancing/ I cry continuously/ They want to deprive me/ Of you, my dove// Then the tarantella//

25a. If it is true that angels/ Have their abode in heaven/ And they know how to pray// It is true that angels/ O these words of yours/ Might they be sincere/ As they seem to be now//

25b. If I start dancing/ First I dance the Tango/ Then the Tarantella// If I start dancing/ I cry with all my heart/ My darling lovely dove/ If you refuse my love/ I cry with all my heart//

25c. Silver swallows/ Have golden wings/ They fly they don't flee// Silver swallows/ Inside my heart/ You are my darling one/ Were there a hundred girls// Have golden wings//

25d. From Monte Santo/ Two brooks flow/ Down to Sant'Elena// From Monte Santo/ These poor eyes of mine/ Don't leave them in anguish/ They'll pine away in tears//

26a. O my Tony darling Tony/ All the world accuses you/ O much better you were dead/ Than an outlaw in the country//

26b. Angiolina, my Angiolina/ You brown leaf of a red rose/ If your mother gives consent/ Very soon you'll be my bride//

26c. The train coming from Bastia/ Is just for the well-to-do/ For the carter's only sighs/ For the shepherds only tears/ Ninna nanna, lullay, bye bye/ Your papa is in the fields//

26d. When I was 15 years of age/ I knew not what love might be/ Now I am 19 years of age/ And the mother of four children/ Come hop, hop and hop again/ Don't trust the Sardinian man/ He's afraid to speak his mind//

26e. Lo my beard is white already/ He took Anna away from me/ He who accepts to play the spy/ Will never be penniless//

26f. I won't shave any longer/ I won't have my hair cut/ I will go into the woods/ And listen to the birds sing//

27. Comare fell asleep as she was sieving/ In these very long nights at Christmas time/ There is a lass who wants something from me/ A violet to make her garden pretty/ And she wants to see me when she's alone/ So she can reward me at my ease/ Whenever I'm prevented from your sight/ There is no rest at night nor in the day/ Comare mia, come with me/ To a fair and sunny spot/ We shall touch each other's hands/ We shall turn our shame out/ Let us have some wine and brandy/ And that will be enough for us//

28. How black blackberries are/ They can even stain your clothes (x2)/ Today's girls when they dance/ Shake as though they were convulsive

29a. What a nice tangerine/ Picked from Costa's orchard/ This society of ours/ Is like a garden//

29b. I chose a boy for myself/ An only son and a rich one//

29c. I won't have a cobbler/ As he can only mend my shoes/ Let me have a carabineer/ And he will take me to Rome//

29d. In the heart of a spike/ Is hidden a little sparrow/ My heart is tiny indeed/ Just for you and for me//

29e. In the heart of a spike/ Is hidden a greenfinch/ My heart is tiny indeed/ Just for you and for me

30. As my son was/ Tormented to death/ Seven swords of sorrow/ Pierced my heart through/ My heart is broken/ My bosom arrow-pierced/ Since they took away/ My most precious treasure/ And the betrayal was subtle/ I can't say how it was/ But I know I was robbed// He was killed without delay/ After they had captured him/ Fifteen hours he's been hanging/ On the cross from the olive grove/ His eyes bandaged they killed him/ Through the blows they gave him/ Death, please, don't let him live/ As since Jesus is dead alas/ Mary can't outlive her son/ I had only this son of mine/ And he was deprived of life//

31. As he suffered until death/ He the heart of my poor soul/ Don't call me Mary any longer/ Mary the lady og grace/ But a lady of sorrow and pain/ Of torment and anguish/ As I must behold my life/ So delivered to the traitors/ Don't call me the blessed one/ My sould cries with unhappiness/ I'm sad grieved and afflicted/ When I offered him my breasts/ I did not suffer as much/ Call me the afflicted one/ Call me the disenhearted one/ Full of pain injured by swords/ My son's life, ah, well-a-day/ Was delivered to the killer//

32. Good night to the end of the year/ Let us praise the landlords/ You see here just little boys/ But our bag is big enough/ We came to your door here/ That we could just come to terms/ We are here and want to tell/ An occurrence which befell/ Which befell on New Years Eve/ Our mama got a child/ It was big and it was old/ If you want to hear whar follows/ Do prepare some hotcakes/ We shall get away at once/ And we shall leave you alone/ If you give us some dried figs/ We shall thank you once again/ As we have already done/ Good night to this end of the year/ If this song is over now/ we shall add three more lines/ Good wishes for your harvest/ Good wishes to all of you/ May the girls get married soon/ May the married ones be happy//

33. This is the eve of St Anthony/ When Anthony was a child/ He hoped he would become a saint/ Then when he grew up/ He heard an angel's voice/ Anthony knew the time had come/ For him to give the poor everything/ His wish was that he could give/ Everybody the reign of Heaven/ Then Anthony immediately/ Gave all he had to the poor/ And lived from then on/ A holy life indeed/ The devil never desisted/ From lure and temptation/ St Paul came to know it/ He was a hermit a saint/ He was full of wonder/ And he set out/ Where Fate had decided/ Finally they met/ They greeted through their names/ Both reasoned about/ Eternity as man to man/ Let Providence never/ Forsake Christians/ A raven brought down/ Twice as much bread/ As on previous days/ And so he could know more/ And so he could be happy/ When he was a hundred and five/ Anthony made penitence/ This is our St Anthony's/ True wisdom/ Many happy returns gentlemen/ May you be alive a hundred years from now/ This is the Eve of St Anthony//

34. My, the money you cost us this autumn/ All of your gang in the cork forest/ All the time grumbling and muttering/ Wine didn't turn into vinegar though/ A crowd I say and all had insurance/ Had there been Poddighe and Maseda/ A barrel wouldn't have been enough/ And Thomas Fenu, Salvatori Carboni/ What a dilapidated family/ Ibba might set up some claims to drink/ But hadn't the bottle fallen from his hands/ He would have drunk its contents to the dregs/ Peppino Melia a good chap indeed/ His snout in the barrel/ Better stop here ohi ahi/ Diego his brother-in-law dead drunk/ Carried on draining the flask/ A good example to the others indeed//

35. Before I set out to go back/ Back to my much loved nest at last/ Since destiny drove me among these people/ Oblivious of my toils and of my troubles/ O Don Manunta a glass of good wine/ Don't refuse me as it is Our Lord's blood/ Healthy and generous wine from the grapes/ And you'll make a Christian of me again//

The Editors

DIEGO CARPITELLA is a university teacher of ethnomusicology, a subject that he teaches at the University and at St. Cecilia Conservatoire in Rome. Since 1952 he has carried on his research into Italian popular music, recording more than 5000 documents above all in central and southern Italy and in the islands. From 1954 to 1962 he took part in the interdisciplinary inquiries directed by Ernesto Demartino. He also did research in Northern Africa and South America. In 1957 he published, together with Alan Lomax, the first collection of recordings on Italian folk music.

PIETRO SASSU is associate professor of the History of Music at "L. Canepa" Conservatoire in Sassari. In 1962 he began his ethomusicological research in Sardinia with Diego Carpitella and then he went deeper into it, publishing specific studies. He did recordings for C.N.S.M.P. and State Discography also in other Italian regions.

LEONARDO SOLE is a teacher of Italian Literature in secondary schools and also collaborator of Cultural Antropology at "facolta' di magistero" in Sassari. He deals in verbal expressiveness at a folkloristic level, even with "on field" research. He published some essays in co-operation with Pietro Sassu.

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