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Folkmusic of Bosnia & Hercegovina

Recordings made by Peter Kennedy at the International Folk Music Festival held at Opatija in 1951. The performers were specially selected as being the most authentic, coming from the most remote villages. After 1950 it was only the professional Communist ensemble groups, approved by the Party leaders, that provided displays mainly for tourist entertainment, while the older traditional customs and music disappeared or went underground for the time being.

1.URODILE ZUTE KRUSKE Dance song: mixed group from Suica, Livmo. Closed kolo with reverse foursome in centre. Mainly white costume, men with red turban hats and women veiled with pendant gold and silver coin decorations 0.39.



2.3. ROMANIJO, VISOKOGA, VISA: Three "romanija" songs by three girls from Bandin Odzak, Sokolac, the last being a partisan song from a more recent period. 1.07 (Total: 2.22).

3.1 SVATOVSKA 0.33

3.2 ZETELACKA Three part-songs by 3 women from Guca Gora, Travnik performed at local weddings and harvest time. 028, 0.52 & 0.18

3.3 IGRA KOLO, NA VRH KOCARINE Dance song by the same group 0.31

3.4 UCETVERO Three women with 3 men in a dance in fours representing a spindle constantly turning 1.10

3.5 SITATO "Sieve" Dance by the same group in which the dancers are passing through a gate which separates them like the grains of flour in a sieve 0.18

3.6 ZENI MAJKA NEJAKA IVANA Movements of sadness interpret the song text 1.05 (Total: 5.27)

4. SVIRKA NA DVOJNICAMA "Dvejnice", shepherd double-pipe, played by Lazar Radak from Ljubovo, Jajce. One pipe has 3, the other 4 holes, except the top hole which has no counterpart, the holes are stopped by only 3 fingers of each hand, the lowest tone, with the open hole of the other pipe, producing the interval of a second, an analogous practice to that of the village polyphonic songs. 1.08

5.1 KAHARLI SAM, VECERALA NISAM "Ravne" song accompanied by the twirling of a "tepsija", copper tray, sung by Naza Muhovic from Basici, Gacko with Hasnija Bosic. Naza knelt on the ground and sang into the centre of the twirling tray: Also heard are the sounds of Hasnija's rings and bangles and the sound of the tray falling down at the end 1.58

5.2 BIBERA This is sung by six women, 3 facing 3, with actions that interpret the cultivation of the soil 1.07

5.3 KOROMANE, JADOMANE "Singing game" type dance in which a boy, with a handkerchief over his face, pretends to be an old man. 1.15 (Total: 4.19)

6.1 ZBOGOM OSTAJ, DEVOJACKI DVORE & OJ CURICE, JANJE MORE This is sung by a man and a woman "na ustresalicu" (in a trilling voice) common to the Dinara mountain region 1.49.

6.2 USPAVANKA A woman's spinning song 0.32

6.3 ZALBA ZA BRATOM A girl kneels and sings an improvised lament 0.47

6.4 BOSANKA (1.07) A "ganga" duet song in which one sings the words and the other accompanies with the "gm" (ganga sound). All the singers come from Orgue, Livno. 1.07 (Total: 4 19)

7.1 TERZIJE Another singing game type, not unlike the British "Roman Soldiers", in which 2 lines of 6 boys and 6 girls advance on each other to take "prisoners". Here it is regarded as a wedding dance portraying the elopement of the bride-to-be because of parental objection 1.27

7.2 KOJ ' ZA KOLO Dance in which the leader invites the others to join him 1.20

7.3 POIGRAVAJ PAVLE - PAUN PASE A wedding dance with interpretation gestures by a group from Duzi, Trebinja. 0.55 (Total: 3.43)

8.1 GAJDE Circular dance accompanied by a violin imitating the sound of the "gajde" bagpipes with both men and women wearing long black pantaloons 1.04

8.2 DJUDJUR POPA Humorous dance usually performed during Lent with singing and violin 1.35

8.3 KOLENIKE VRETENO Spindle dance imitating spinning 0.55

8.4 ZUTA ZABA Another hunorous dance with slow "scooping" movements. All from Vijaka, Vares. 2.25 (Total: 6.04).

9. SVIRKA "Diple" shepherd pipe, played by Stipe Bakula from Posusje, Siroki Brijeg, has no bourdon, its drones are doubled and the chanter has an augmented beating reed. 1.00

10. U PARTIJI I JANJE MOJE Two part song by two girls from Prud, Basanski Samac. 0.59



11.3 SASTALI SE CAPLJINSKI TATARI Three town songs by Jasim Magic accompanying himself on the "brac" from Sanki Most. It has 4 strings tuned GBEE, the first string being doubled. 1.30 (Total: 7.27)

12. OSLOBODENJE SIPOVA Epic ballad of the National Liberation movement sung by Lazar Radak accompanying himself on the one-string "gusle" from Ljubovo, Jacje in typical S. Hercegovinian and Montenegrin style. 4.37

Recorded by Peter Kennedy, September 1951 with the aid of The Yugoslav Council for Science & Culture. First published on Folktrax cassettes 1977.

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